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THE PAVEMENT 



OF SIENA 

m 

^^=i^ : 



1369-1562 



CO 



. H. HOBART CUST, M.A. 




HANDBOOKS OF THE GREAT 
CRAFTSMEN. EDITED BY 
G. C. WILLIAMSON, LiTT.D. 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS OF SIENA 



Ibanbboofes of tbc (Breat Craftsmen, 



Illustrated Monographs, Biographical and Critical, on the Great 
Craftsmen and Workers of Ancient and Modern Times. 

Edited by G. C. WILLIAMSON, Litt.D. 

Imperial i6mo, with numerous Illustrations, about $s. net each. 

First Volumes of the Series 

THE PAVEMENT MASTERS OF SIENA. Workers in 
Graffito. By R. H. HOBART CUST, M.A. 

PETER VISCHER. Bronze Founder. By CECIL HEADLAM, B. A. 

THE IVORY WORKERS OF THE MIDDLE AGES. By 
A. M. COST. 

Others to follow. 



LONDON: GEORGE BELL AND SONS 
NEW YORK: THE MACMILLAN CO. 



HE PAVEMENT MASTERS 



OF 



SIENA 



(13691^62) 



BY 



ROBERT H. HOBART GUST, M.A, 

MAGDALEN COLLEGE. OXFORD 




LONDON 

GEORGE BELL AND SONS 

igoi 



VI 



TO 

H. B. 

WITH GRATEFUL AND AFFECTIONATE 
REGARD. 



CHISWICK PRESS : CHARLES WHITTINGHAM AND CO. 
TOOKS COURT, CHANCERY LANE, LONDON. 



PREFACE 

TH E first impression that this book may give, 
is that I have put the cart before the horse, 
and that, instead of dwelling- on the Pavement 
Masters, I have laid too much stress on the Pave- 
ment itself,and too little on the makers of it. Acare- 
ful perusal, however, will, I hope, prove that I have 
been right in my reasoning. I have felt strongly, 
that in order to form a fair idea of these Masters, 
many, I may say, most, of whose names are en- 
tirely unknown to the general English reader, it was 
necessary to give as clear and vivid a picture as 
was possible, of this, their greatest work, through 
which their names live. Most people, who have ever 
heard of Siena, have heard of its Cathedral Pave- 
ment : an-unique and historical piece of work : 
but how many have heard of even such great 
artists as Pietro del Minella and Antonio Federiorhi ? 

O 

On this account, it seems to me that the case 
needed treatment such as I have given it. I have, 
therefore, composed a full and, as far as I could 
make it, a clear account of the chain which con- 
nects these men together, and then added short 
notices of each, giving all the important facts ob- 
tainable about them. For this purpose, I have 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

examined all the recognized authorities, and tried 
to introduce any side-lights that may brighten up 
a somewhat dull record of facts. I have avoided 
venturing on criticism : partly because I felt myself 
unequal to the task ; and partly because my space 
was too limited to allow of such digressions without 
a sacrifice of more important matter. Where I 
have put forward a theoretical suggestion, I have 
carefully pointed out that it is only offered as such. 
I regret that it is impossible to translate all the 
documents quoted, chiefly because the quaint lan- 
guage in which they are written is untranslatable, 
and would lose most of its charm if rendered into 
modern English. On the other hand, I have, 
where a passage specially important to my argu- 
ment occurs in a document, given its general mean- 
ing in the text. I have added a long list of authori- 
ties, and works connected with the Cathedral and 
its Pavement which have been consulted, and I 
have to thank cordially, for practical and artistic 
help, and advice throughout, three ladies : the 
Hon. Mrs. A. L. Pelham, Mrs. J. P. Richter, and 
Mrs. Trail. 

SIENA, September, 1901. 



VI 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 

PAGE 

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS ix 

AUTHORITIES CONSULTED . . xi 

THE SCHEME OF THE PAVEMENT . . xiv 

CHAPTER I. 

H.ISTORY OF THE PAVEMENT ... 3 

CHAPTER II. 
THE PAVEMENT . . . . 14 

CHAPTER III. 
THE PAVEMENT MASTERS .... 103 

CHAPTER IV. 
OTHER PAVEMENT WORK . . . . 143 

CHAPTER V. 

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP OF THE PAVE- 
MENT . . . . . . .150 

INDEX . . . . . . 157 



vn 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TO FACE 
PLATE PAGE 

I. GENERAL VIEW of the Interior of Siena 

Cathedral, showing the Pavement ... I 

II. THE ENTIRE PAVEMENT 14 

Key Plan to the same, page 15. 

III. HERMES TRISMEGISTUS, designed by Gio- 

vanni di Maestro Stefano 21 

IV. THE BADGES OF SIENA AND THE CON- 

FEDERATE CITIES, 1373. (Author un- 
known) 24 

V. AN ALLEGORY OF FORTUNE, designed 

by Pinturicchio 27 

VI. THE WHEEL OF FORTUNE, 1372. (Author 

unknown) 30 

VII. THE SAMIAN SIBYL, designed by Matteo 

di Giovanni Bartoli 45 

VIII. THE HELLESPONTINE SIBYL, designed 

by Neroccio di Landi 48 

IX. THE EXPULSION OF HEROD, designed 
by Benvenuto di Giovanni del Guasta 

(the entire panel) 55 

X. THE CHIEF PORTION OF THE SAME PANEL, 

(in large size to show details) .... 56 
XI. DETAIL OF THE FRIEZE OF LIONS, de- 
signed by Bastiano di Francesco ... 58 
XII. THE MASSACRE OF THE INNOCENTS, de- 
signed by Matteo di Giovanni Bartoli 

(the entire panel) 61 

ix b 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

TO FACE. 
PLATE PAGE 

XIII. THE CHIEF PORTION OF THE SAME PANEL, 

(in large size to show details) .... 62 

XIV. THE RELIEF OF BETHULIA, designed by 

Urbano da Cortona(P), or Matteo di Gio- 
vanni Bartoli(P), executed by Antonio 

Federighi 64 

XV. DETAIL FROM THE SAME PANEL ... 66 
XVI. ANOTHER DETAIL FROM THE SAME 

PANEL 68 

XVII. THE STORY OF ABSALOM, by Pietro del 

Minella 79 

XVIII. THE SEVEN AGES OF MAN, designed by 

Antonio Federighi 85 

XIX. ELIJAH'S COMPACT WITH AHAB, designed 

by Domenico Beccafumi 99 

XX. SAMSON AND THE PHILISTINES, designed 

by Paolo di Martino 1 1 1 

XXI. THE EMPEROR SIGISMUND, designed by 

Domenico di Bartoli d' Asciano . . . 113 
XXII. A CANDLESTICK, designed by Antonio 

Federighi(P) 119 

XXIII. DETAIL FROM THE STORY OF JEPH- 

THAH, designed by Bastiano di Francesco 1 29 

XXIV. DRAWINGS OF DETAILS. The lily de- 

signed by Antonio Federighi (?) ; border 
A designed by Domenico Beccafumi . 137 
XXV. THE STORY OF MOSES AND THE TABLES 
OF THE LAW, designed by Domenico 

Beccafumi 139 

XXVI. ELIJAH CAUGHT UP TO HEAVEN (from 

the drawing by Prof. Alessandro Franchi) 1 54 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED 

Milanesi (Gaetano). Documenti per la Storia dell' Arte 

Senese. (Porri, Siena, 1856). 
Sulla Storia dell' Arte Toscana, Scritti Varii. (Dis- 

corso sulla Storia Artistica Senese^) (Sordo-Muti, 

Siena, 1873.) 
MS. Notes on the Pavement. Bib. Pubb. Siena. Cod. 

P. III., 28. 
Commentario sulle Vite di piu eccellenti Pittori, 

Scultori ed Architettori da Giorgio Vasari, vols. 

i. and v. (G. C. Sansone, Firenze, 1 880-81.) 
Borghesi (S.) and Bianchi (L.). Nuovi Documenti 

per la Storia dell' Arte Senese. (Torrini, Siena, 

1898.) 
MS. Notes on the Pavement, etc., etc., etc. Bib. Pubb. 

Siena, Cod. P. II. 
Faluschi (Abate Gioacchino). MS. Notes, Bib. Pubb. 

Siena. Cod. E. V. 13 and E. V. 16. 
Tizio (Sigismondo). Historiarum Senensium, vols. iv., v., 

vi. MS. Bib. Pubb. Siena, Cod. B. III., 9, 10, n. 
Ciaccheri (Abate Giuseppe). MS. Notes, Bib. Pubb. 

Siena. 
Delia Valle (Padre Guglielmo). Lettere Senesi, vol. iii. 

(Descrizione del Pavimento, by Alfonso Landi.) 

(Giovanni Zempel, Rome, 1787.) 
Ugurgieri-Azzolini (Padre Isidore). Pompe Senese. 

(Pistoia, 1649.) 

Gigli (Girolamo). Diario Senese. (Lucca, 1723.) 
DeAngelis( Padre). Vita di Beato Pier Pettinaio. (Siena, 

1802.) 

xi 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED 

Repetti(Emanuele). DizionarioGeografico-Fisico-Storico 
della Toscana. (Tofani, Firenze, 1833-45.) 

Micheli (Prof. Padre Everardo). Siena e il suo Terri- 
torio. (Edifizi Religiosi e Civili). (Sordo-Muti, 
Siena, 1862.) 
II Pavimento del Duomo di Siena. (Sordo-Muti, 

Siena, 1870.) 

La Guida Artistica della Citta e Contorni di Siena. 
(Sordo-Muti, Siena, 1883.) 

Benci (Gusmano). Ricordi Artistici di Siena. (Sordo- 
Muti, Siena, 1875.) 

Album di Storia Patria, Bozzetti Repubblicani Senesi, 
vol. i. Domenico Beccafumi. (Giulio Mucci, Siena, 

18750 
Mussini (Luigi). Le Tavole della Biccherna e della 

Gabella della Repubblica di Siena. (Bargellini, 

Siena, 1877.) 
II Pavimento del Duomo di Siena e il Prof. Alessandro 

Franchi. (Le Monnier, Firenze, 1880.) 
Rubini (Ferdinando). Dei Restauri eseguiti nella Chiesa 

Metropolitana in Siena dal Luglio, 1864, al 31 

Dicembre, 1878. (Bargellini, Siena, 1869 and 1879.) 
Ridolfi (E.). L'Arte in Lucca, studiata nella sua Catte- 

drale. (Lucca, 1882.) 
Lusini (V.). Storia della Basilica di S. Francesco in 

Siena. (Siena, 1894.) 
Miscellanea Storica Senese, Gennaio-Febbraio, 1898. 

(Torrini, Siena, 1898.) 
Sismondi (Jean Ch. L. Simonde de). Histoire des Re- 

publiques Italiennes du Moyen Age. (Treuttel et 

Wurtz, Paris, 1818.) 
Piper (Ferdinand). Mythologie der christlichen Kunst, 

vol. i. (Weimar, 1847.) 
Richter (Luise M.). Siena. (Seeman, Leipzig and Berlin, 

1901.) 

Justi (Carl). Michelangelo. (1901.) 

xii 



AUTHORITIES CONSULTED 

Wagner (Hans Joachim). Domenico di Bartolo Ghezzi 
V. Teil der von einer hohen Fakultat angenommen 
Abhandlung. Das Dompaviment von Siena und 
seine Meister. (W. Fr. Kastner, Gottingen, 1 898.) 

Lindsay (Lord). Sketches of the History of Christian 
Art, vol. ii. 

Berenson (Bernhard). Central Italian Painters. (Putnam, 
London and New York, 1899.) 

Symonds (John Addington). Introduction to the Study 
of Dante. (A. and C. Black, London, 1893.) 

Norton (Charles E.). Church Building in the Middle 
Ages. (Harpers, New York, 1880.) 

Encyclopaedia Britannica. (i 880), Hermes Trismegistus : 
Sibyls. 



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The various designs on the pavement arranged 
in their chronological order. 


(/3) The Hebrew People wait for 
Moses' Descent from the Mount, 
(y) The Destruction of the idol- 
atrous Hebrews. 
(2) Moses breaks the Tables of 
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The Story of Abraham's Sacrifice. 
At the side of this large picture, 
which is placed before the High 


Altar, and on either side of the 
Altar itself, are fourteen other small 
pictures, seven on each side. 
These represent : 


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These four designs are 
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chap, ii., it is not impro- 
bable that they were ori- 


ginally designed by (46) 
Gio. Battista Sozzini, and 
executed by (47) Niccolo 
di Girolamo Gori, (48) 
Domenico di Pier Gio- 
vanni, and Bernardino di 
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In 1875-78, the scenes in the four lozenges, Nos. 47-50, by 
Carlo Amidei, being considered unsatisfactory, and the ancient 
scenes 38, 39, 40, being much dilapidated, (51) Professor Ales- 
sandro Franchi prepared four new designs of the same subjects 
for the lozenges, and three more subjects from the same story, 
for the three hexagons. 

Namely : (a) Elijah predicts the manner of Ahab's death, 
No 39. l 

(b) Ahab mortally wounded, No. 40. 

(c) Elijah carried to Heaven in a Chariot of Fire, 

No. 38. 

These designs were executed by (52) Prof. Leopoldo Maccari, 
with the assistance of the sculptors (53) Antonio and (54) 
Giuseppe Radicchi. 

The same artists also, at the same date, designed and exe- 
cuted, respectively, the figures of the four Theological Virtues 
(Nos. 7, 8, 9, and 10), as we now see them. 

1 These numbers refer to the position of these subjects on the plan (p. 15). 



XX111 




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. . . " Cast down thine eyes ; 
'Twere well for thee, to alleviate the way, 
To look upon the bed beneath thy feet. 

So saw I there, but of a better semblance 
In point of artifice, with figures covered 
Whate'er as pathway from the mount projects. 

Who e'er of pencil master was or stile, 

That could portray the shades and traits which there 
Would cause each subtile genius to admire? 
Dead seemed the dead, the living seemed alive ; 
Better than I saw not who saw the truth, 
All that I trod upon while bowed I went. 

"La Divina Comwedia" of Dante Alighieri, 
translated by H. W. Longfellow. 



Volgi gli occhi in giue ; 
Buon ti sara, per alleggiar la via, 
Veder lo letto delle piante tue. 

Si vid' io li, ma di miglior sembianza 
Secondo 1' artificio, figurato 
Quanto per via di fuor dal monte avanza. 

Qual di pennel fu maestro o di stile, 
Che ritraesse 1'ombre e i tratti, ch' ivi 
Mirar farieno ogn' ingegno sottile ? 
Morti li morti, e i vivi parean vivi. 
Non vede me' di me chi vide il vero, 
Quant' io calcai fin che chinato givi. 

" La Divina Commedia " di Dante Alighieri, II 
Piirgatorio, Canto xii. L. 13-15, 22-24, 64-69. 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 
OF SIENA 

CHAPTER I 

HISTORY OF THE PAVEMENT 

ONE might have supposed that when Dante 
wrote the lines here quoted, he was de- 
scribing the wonderful pavement that still adorns 
the Duomo of Siena. But this, we know, cannot be, 
since it was not until more than thirty jears after 
Dante's death that the plans for a greatly enlarged 
Duomo were abandoned, and the Sienese set them- 
selves to adorn the building in the shape that we 
see it now. Moreover, as we shall presently see, 
no records of ornamental work done upon the floor 
exist earlier than 1369. We may, however, I 
think, fairly turn the proposition the other way, 
and fancy that the pavement designers had Dante's 
wonderfully descriptive verses in their minds, when 
they planned such a work. Their subjects and 
his differ vastly; and in the two hundred years 
that passed, ere it was in any sense completed, 
many variations took place in the original design, 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

if complete design there ever was. Still we may 
feel, on entering that glorious temple, as if we were 
really treading the first parapet of Purgatory, as 
pictured by him. 

Although the order in which the stories meet 
our eyes does not in the least agree with the 
chronology of their execution, a sense of fitness 
in position seems to run through them, even from 
the great West Door itself. Hermes Trismegistus 
presenting to his disciples the Poemander, meets 
us on the very threshold of the Nave, supported 
in either aisle by the majestic figures of the ten 
Sibyls ; and seems to lead the way, through half- 
pagan symbolical designs, to where, surrounded 
by the histories of Hebrew heroes and prophets, 
the mystery of the Atoning Sacrifice of Christ, the 
Very God, the Centre of all Faith and Prophecy 
is, before the High Altar itself, symbolized by the 
Sacrifice of Isaac. 

But this suggestion must not be pressed too far, 
because, as I have already remarked, and as the 
accompanying plan will show, many variations, for 
which at first sight the reason is not very obvious, 
have from time to time crept in. For general 
purposes, however, the student of the floor may 
fairly start with some such complete conception. 

From the admirably arranged Archives, both 
Ecclesiastical and Communal, of the City of Siena, 
we are able to piece together a very nearly com- 
plete history of the work, showing, in most cases, 
why certain exceptions probably were made ; and 

4 



from them, through the medium of the carefully 
compiled volumes of the late Signor Gaetano 
Milanesi, I have drawn most of the information 
which follows. 1 

Vasari's statement, so often quoted by sub- 
sequent writers, that Duccio made designs for this 
pavement, is quite without documentary authority. 2 
Duccio died more than fifteen years before the 
larger Duomo scheme was finally abandoned ; 
whilst the earliest records dealing with work of 
a decorative nature 3 is dated 1369, and runs as 

1 Documenti per la Storia delF Arte Senese, collected and 
illustrated by Dott. Gaetano Milanesi (Porri, Siena, 1854). 
Supplemented by Nuovi Documenti per la Storia del Arte 
Senese, by S. S. Borghesi and L. Banchi. (Torrini, Siena, 
1898). 

2 Vasari also states that Duccio invented this species of 
work ; but Milanesi, in his Notes to Vasari's " Life of Duccio " 
(vol. i. p. 654), says, "It is certain, also? that these works of 

' 'putting together'' (commesso\ were in use before the time of 
' Duccio. We have an ancient example in the Atrium of the 
' Duomo at Lucca, where, among certain ' little figures,' (form- 
' elle\ is a decoration in black, red and white marble, with 
' figures of men and animals, in some parts engraved (graffiti}. 
' This work of ' commessoj and mosaic in marble, was made in 
' 1233, as is shown by an inscription near the left side of the 
' great door, which states : 

" HOC OPUS CEPIT FIERI A BELENATO 
"ET ALDIBRANDO OPERAIIS 
" A D. MCCXXXIII." 

3 Mil. Doc., vol. i. p. 176-178. An earlier notice as to the 
floor itself, dated 1362, exists it is true, and runs as follows : "a 
lo schalzetta matonaio - per matoni che sebero per amatonare 
lo spazzo di duomo intorno al altare di duomo L. n sol. 6." 

5 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

follows : " a maestro Antonio di Brunaccio vintuna 
lire a cinque sol per if braccia e due quarri dt 
tarsie di marmo di lo spazzo di Duomo!' In the 
following year (1370) we read "a maestro Sano di 
Marco per dodici porporelle per lo spazzo di duomo, 
a sol: 10 Vuna, si danno L. 6." ; " a Francesco di 
Ser Antonio per uno braccio e mezzo di compasso 
per detto spazzo a ragione d'otto lire e mezzo il 
braccio si danno lire 12. e soldi 15," and " a maestro 
Sano di Marco per birichuocoli bianchi c rossi 
pello spazzo di duomo, L. 4. soldi 8." 

Two years later, according to the historian 
Sigismondo Tizio, the Pavement of the nave from 
the cupola downwards was begun, and among 
other things was laid out (spianatd] the design 
of the Wheel of Fortune, with figures of men cling- 
ing to it. 

And in the next year (1373) an old chronicler 2 
tells us that " In questo anno si fece il pavimento a 
pietre tassellate" which no doubt refers to the 
circle containing the emblems of Siena, surrounded 
by those of the cities friendly and allied to her. 
Be it noted here that this is the only portion of 
the floor that is tessellated ; that is to say, de- 
corated with designs, made up of small squares of 

(Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo. Entrata e Uscita ad annum). 
But this clearly only refers to the laying down of an ordinary 
floor; perhaps a platform for the high altar. Cf. Padre Prof. 
Everardo Micheli. II Pavimento del Duomo, etc. Note f. 

1 Archivio detto. Entrata e Uscita ad annos. 

- Frammenti di Storia Senese presso Emilio Piccolomini. 

6 



HISTORY OF THE PAVEMENT 

different coloured stones, in the manner of ordinary 
mosaic. 

Then, in 1374, we find reference 1 to work 
done, under the direction of Andrea di Minuccio 
Operaio, at the foot of the Choir; which was at 
that date, and until the commencement of the 
sixteenth century, situated under the Cupola. 

Again in 1376, 1380, 1398 and 1405, we read 
of payments to certain master-workmen, named 
Matteo di Bartolo, Nanni di Corsino, Sano di 
Matteo, Luca di Ciecho (or Cecco), and Cecco 
di Giovanni (or Giovannino di Ciecho), for in- 
tarsia work on the Pavement, apparently in dec- 
orative friezes, some of which, no doubt, exist still, 
though we cannot now identify them. 

The first authoritative document, however, which 
speaks of figures on the Pavement is an entry in 
the Duomo Archives, under date March ijth, 
1406, which records the payment of 140 lire, "e 
quali li debiamo dare" to Marchesse d'Adarno 
(perhaps a son of the architect, Maestro Adamo), 
" e compagni maestri di pietra da Como per una 
rotta (ruota) anno fatto murare nello spazzo contra 
a la sagrestia" 2 

From the mention of its neighbourhood to the 
sacristy, this must point to the circle containing 
the figure of Fortitude, No 21, from which, alas! 

1 Archivio detto. 1374, Maggio, Libro d'Entrata ed Uscita 
a 70. 

See also Borghesi MSS. 

2 Archivio detto. Bastardello, No. 2, del 1405, a. 65. 

7 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

restoration, in 1839, has removed all ancient feel- 
ing, and sadly reduced to the commonplace. 

After this we find no entries until 1423 ; but 
from that time commences the real history of the 
Pavement Masters : and we begin with perhaps 
the most interesting personage connected with it ; 
namely, Domenico di Niccolo del Coro, who held 
the post of Capo-maestro 1 of the Opera del Duomo 
between the years 1413 and 1423. It is not easy 
now to separate the work attributed to Domenico 
from that of another artist, Paolo di Martino, who 
appears to have immediately succeeded Domenico 
as Capo-maestro. We know, however, that the 
following portions of the floor were executed at 
that date : 

1. David the Psalmist, surrounded by four 
Musicians (No. 53). 2 

2. David the Youth with his Sling (No. 55). 

3. The Giant Goliath falling backwards 
(No. 54). 

4. Moses (No. 16). 

5. Samson chastising the Philistines (No. 14). 

6. Judas Maccabeus (No. 15). 

1 Apparently the working foreman or clerk of the works. 
The terms used to describe the different offices are both con- 
fusing and misleading, but it is evident from the documents 
that the Rettore or Operaio as he is indifferently called, was a 
person of much greater social importance than the Capo-maestro, 
and not really a workman at all. He was the official Director 
of the Cathedral works, the Steward in fact : the Capo-maestro 
being his head workman. 

These numbers refer to the plan on p. 15. 



HISTORY OF THE PAVEMENT 

7. Joshua (No. 23). 

8. The Slaughter of the Five Kings of the 
Amorites (No. 22). 

Of these eight subjects the first three may be 
with certainty given to Domenico himself; whilst 
Nos. 5 and 8 may be J ascribed to the other artist. 
Of the single figures that of Judas Maccabeus is so 
entirely concealed now by the balustrade of the 
altar of the Blessed Sacrament built over it, that 
it is impossible to ascertain with any degree of 
absolute certainty who was its author ; but Joshua 
and Moses are given by Milanesi to Paolo di 
Martino. 

Domenico seems to have been a great and 
versatile artist, a worker in glass, 2 as well as in 
marble, and above all famous for his skill in wood- 
carving and inlay. The restorations of his work 
here, which have evidently been frequent, have 
robbed it of very much of the charm, which we 
feel so strongly in his inlaid panels in the Palazzo 
Pubblico Chapel, but there is still a nai've origin- 
ality about the designs, which cannot fail to show 
his high merit. 

The next celebrated artist, who left his mark on 
this floor was the painter, Domenico di Bartolo di 
Ghezzo of Asciano, whose charming design of the 

1 See Siena e il suo Territorio, p. 217, and passim. Also 
Mil. Doc., vol. i. p. 238; and Sulla Storia Artistica Senese, 
p. 84. 

2 For references on this head from the Archives of the Opera 
del Duomo, see Mil. Doc., vol. ii. pp. 12, 238, 239. 

9 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Emperor Sigismund enthroned, No. 13, is one of 
the most marked exceptions to the general scheme. 

Next we have Pietro del Minella, the celebrated 
sculptor, and a pupil of the still more famous 
Giacomo della Ouercia. He also left only one 
design, but that perhaps the most striking in the 
entire floor : Absalom hanging by his hair, No. 12. 

Then appears that great craftsman, Antonio 
Federighi, whose graceful "Ages of Man," No. 6, 
would alone entitle him to take a high rank in the 
History of Art. The works of Art left by this 
artist here and elsewhere are many, and of a very 
varied description ; but we must now pass on to 
perhaps the most interesting and prolific period in 
the History of the Duomo, during which the floor 
was by no means left uncared for. 

The City of Siena outside was a prey to constant 
faction and civil disturbance, but her Duomo within, 
under the fostering care and taste of the noble 
Alberto Aringhieri, Knight of Rhodes and Malta, 
Rettore from 1481-1498, was steadily growing in 
beauty and splendour. ' I cannot here enumerate 
all the embellishments added during this period to 
the fabric, though among them I may name the 
decoration of the interior of the Cupola : the adorn- 
ment of the Chapel of S. Giovanni, where may 
still be seen Pinturicchio's beautiful portraits of 
Aringhieri himself in youth and age : and the 
frieze of Papal busts that runs round the entire 
building. 

Aringhieri collected around him a band of artists, 

10 



HISTORY OF THE PAVEMENT 

eminent already as painters and sculptors ; among 
whom was Federighi himself. From the designs 
and with the skill of these, he completed the floor 
of the North and South Transepts; both the Aisles 
and the last bay of the Nave. Whether, as is 
possible, he was influenced in his choice of sub- 
jects by external historical events, we cannot now 
say ; but some at least of the designs, while appro- 
priate to the general idea of the whole, appear to 
have a possible political significance. Thus the 
" Massacre of the Innocents," No. 26, designed by 
Matteo di Giovanni Bartoli, may have been chosen 
to commemorate the terrifying episodes that oc- 
curred during the Sack of Otranto by the Turks ; 
and the Expulsion of Herod, No. 27, the Fall of 
Pandolfo Petrucci and his faction. Whether this 
was so or not, the works of this period are among 
the finest and noblest designs on the entire floor. 
The later work of Beccafumi may be more real- 
istic, but nothing can surpass the force and feeling 
of power exhibited in the fourteen designs, which 
date their origin from this period. 

In 1505-6 was added Pinturicchio's "Allegory of 
Fortune," No. 36 ; and shortly after an important 
change in the interior arrangement of the building, 
by exposing a great deal of floor space, necessitated 
the addition of a large number of fresh designs, 
which Domenico Beccafumi (il Mecarino] was called 
upon to supply. This change was the removal, 
under the direction of Baldassare Peruzzi, Capo- 
maestro in 1532, of the High Altar, which had 

1 1 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

hitherto stood under the Cupola, to their present 
position, further east in the Apse. 

Beccafumi had previously, in 1525 and 1531, de- 
signed his scenes from the Life of Moses, Nos. 5 I 
and 52, and he now, in 1544-46, was commissioned 
to make designs to surround the Altar-steps. Of 
the history of the Elijah designs, Nos. 41-46, under 
the Cupola, attributed to him, I wish to speak at 
greater length, so I will reserve the details con- 
cerning them until the next chapter. 

In 1 66 1 the building of the Cappella del Voto 
by Pope Alexander VII. destroyed the ancient 
Porta del Perdono ; and the scene representing 
the Consecration of the Cathedral, designed by 
Guasparre d'Agostino, and executed by Corso di 
Bastiano in 1451, which formerly lay before that 
door, was ruthlessly destroyed. 

In 1750, certain Virtues, Nos. 7, 8, 9, 10, were 
designed by Carlo Amidei for the entrance to the 
above-mentioned chapel. This artist also restored 
a good many of the older designs, and added, it 
is generally assumed, four lozenges to the story of 
Elijah, Nos. 47-50, under the Cupola. These were 
all considered worthless and removed in 1875 to 
make way for new designs by Sig. Prof. Alessandro 
Franchi, the present Director of the Accademia 
delle Belle Arti. This accomplished gentleman also 
designed three hexagons to complete the Story 
of Elijah, Nos. 38, 39 and 40, and to fill spaces, 
up to that time occupied by fragments of older 
work, brought from other parts of the Cathedral. 

12 



HISTORY OF THE PAVEMENT 

These designs were all executed under his direc- 
tion by Signer Leopoldo Maccari in I878. 1 

Between the years 1864 and 1878 a complete 
restoration of the whole floor has taken place. 
Much time and money have been expended upon 
the work, and the result is, on the whole, not un- 
satisfactory ; but the effects of previous restora- 
tions by less sympathetic hands in certain parts is 
painfully apparent. Some of the work, beautiful 
still, but too much injured to remain in situ has 
been removed to the Museum of the Opera del 
Duomo, and replaced by copies. 

This Pavement, in spite of the opinions of those 
who consider pictorial design unsuitable floor de- 
coration, is a never-ending source of joy and 
pleasing suggestion : an unique to^^r de force, and 
a stroke of genius on the part of the original de- 
signers. Except during the month of August, the 
entire centre portion from the West door to the 
High Altar itself is carefully protected by boarding. 
When this is removed, and the whole vista is 
spread out before one, it would be hard to imagine 
any other species of floor, that would have so 
satisfactorily completed the many-coloured interior 
harmonies of this wonderful Cathedral. 

1 Ferdinando Rubini, Dei Restauri eseguiti nella Mesa 
Metropolitana in Siena. (Bargellini, 1869-1879.) 



CHAPTER II 

THE PAVEMENT 

HAVING briefly sketched the history of the 
entire Pavement, it will be necessary now 
to describe it in detail. For this purpose I have 
divided it into ten parts, commencing at the great 
Western Entrance. 

These ten parts are as follows : 

1. The wide Platform before the Fa9ade. 

2. The Spaces in the three Western Door- 

ways. 

3. The Nave. 

4. The South Aisle. 

5. The North Aisle. 

6. The North Transept. 

7. The Choir Ambulatory. 

8. The South Transept. 

9. The Choir and Altar-steps. 
10. Under the Cupola. 

I. THE PLATFORM BEFORE THE WESTERN FACADE. 

Tizio l tells us that this platform with its three 

1 1448. Pavimentum quoque marmoreum ante portas 
Templi Senensis trinis scalis ascensis, e marmore sterni fecit. 





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F 


A 




59 57 58 


K 



KEY PLAN TO THE PAVEMENT 
15 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

steps was laid down in 1448, under the direction 
of Giovanni Borghesi, then Rettore of the Opera. 
Originally there were apparently five designs upon 
it, of which, however, only four were still distin- 
guishable when, in the seventeenth century, Landi 
wrote his elaborate description of the floor. 1 These 
were : In the centre, as at present, the Pharisee 
and the Publican kneeling before a round Temple : 
On either side a vase ; the one inscribed Mel 
(Honey), the other Fel (Gall), symbolic perhaps 
of the imperfection of earthly joys. On the right- 
hand side on entering was the Sacrifice of Abel ; 
and on the other side, Landi says, that there was 
no pictured design, but merely a fancy pattern of 
coloured marbles, probably replacing a scene pre- 
viously destroyed by time and hard usage. The 
constant stream of traffic across this Platform has 
necessitated frequent restoration of the Pavement ; 
and the story of Abel has now entirely vanished. 
The vase, also, on the right, now bears the label 
Lac (Milk), instead of Fel, perhaps in allusion to 
the Promised Land, and the Golden Jerusalem of 
Bernard of Clairvaux's hymn. This work is exe- 

Abel quoque sacrificium, nee non Publicanum et Phariseum 
designari duo insuper vascula, melle uno felle altero plenis, e 
regione portarum extremarum notabili significazione depromi, 
quoniam a summo et maximo Deo in hujus mundi ingressu ac 
lirriine turn mala turn bona omnes sunt accepturi. Tizio, Hist. 
Sen., vol. iv., ad ann. 

1 Alfonso Landi. Descrizione del Pavimento, quoted in full 
by Padre Guglielmo delle Valle. Lettere Senese, vol. iii., 
pp. 124-157. 

16 



THE PAVEMENT 

cuted in the earliest of the four principal methods 
of design : namely a trapano ; that is to say, out- 
lined on a slab of white marble in little dots made 
with a trepanning drill. 

The figures of the Pharisee and the Publican 
are executed with great spirit, but are entirely 
modern in feeling and conception. 1 Each figure 
is formed of a slab or slabs of white marble, cut in 
outline, and let into a background, of which the 
atmosphere is black and the ground red marble, so 
that each figure stands out clear and distinct. 
Lines of feature, folds of robes and other acces- 
sories are outlined, as described above, with a 
trepanning drill. Certain pieces of yellow marble 
have been added at the sides of the picture, which 
seem unnecessary and even discordant. They 
may have been placed there during the restorations 
which took place here but a few years since. 

2. THE SPACES IN THE THREE DOORWAYS OF THE 
WESTERN FACADE. 

The three much-worn scenes that remain here 
evidently represent the ''Ceremonies of Ordination " 

1 The author of Siena e il'suo Terriforio, p. 211, states thai 
these figures were executed originally in 1513, and suggests 
that they may have been designed by Giacomo Cozzarelli ; but 
I have hitherto found no authority to support that statement, 
and they are now too much restored to assist one's judgmen* 
by comparison with other work of that artist. Moreover, as 
Giacomo Cozzarelli at that date would have been very old, since 
we read of work done by him as far back as 1447, this is very 
improbable. 

17 c 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

in the three degrees ; and such is the opinion of 
Faluschi, Landi, and Delia Valle. Padre Everardo 
Micheli, however, wishes us to believe that these 
scenes illustrate the " Reconciliation of the Peni- 
tent : " a proposition which seems to me both far- 
fetched and improbable. 

These works, executed in the same methods and 
with the same materials as those just described, 
retain far more of their original feeling and senti- 
ment ; and it is interesting to compare them with 
a similar set in the doorways of San Giovanni (the 
Baptistery), which represent the " Birth," " Bap- 
tism," and "Anointing of an Infant Christian." 

In the first case we have, to the extreme right, 
the "Ordination of the Deacon ;" next, that "of the 
Priest ;" and, finally, that "of the Bishop." In the 
other, to the extreme left, is the " Birth of the Child" 
(a composition curiously similar to that employed 
by many painters at this period for the Birth of St. 
John the Baptist): then "Its Baptism ;" and lastly, 
"Its Anointing and Reception into the Church of 
Christ." Of these three scenes, commenced in 
1450 by a certain Bartolomeo di Mariano, called 
// Mandriano, from designs made by one Nastagio 
di Guasparre ; that in the centre, which we read 
was executed by Antonio Federighi (145 1), 1 is 
very much the finest, although there is a certain 
similarity in general conception throughout. 

1 Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo. Libro E. IV. Memorie, 
a. 21. Archivio detto. Libro delle due Rose dal 1466 al 
1476, a. 64. 

18 



THE PAVEMENT 

On further research, we find that a certain 
Guasparre, described as " dipentore nostro" made 
a design for the space before the door for the then 
existing Porta del Perdono. 1 " This design repre- 
sented the " Consecration of the Duomo" in 1 174,* 
and was executed by Corso di Bastiano of Florence. 

Now Guasparre d'Agostino, also designated as 
" nostro dipentore "* about this same time painted 
certain scenes from the Life of S. Bernardino for 
the Sacristy of the Duomo, and also decorated the 
apse of the Baptistery with frescoes of the " Cruci- 
fixion and Burial of Christ/' 4 We may not un- 
reasonably suppose that the above-mentioned 
Nastagio was his son or pupil, and that the father 
and son, or master and pupil, were associated 
together in all these similar works around the 
doors of the Cathedral and Baptistery. Unfor- 
tunately the work known to have been designed 
by Guasparre before the Porta del Perdono was, 
together with that entrance itself, ruthlessly de- 
stroyed in 1 66 1, so that we have nothing certain 

1 Archivio detto. Libro E. IV. Memorie, a. 24. 

2 It is generally supposed that this ceremony was performed 
by Pope Alexander III. (Bandinelli), but the tradition is un- 
supported by documentary evidence hitherto obtainable. This 
same Pope laid the foundation stone of the Cathedral of Notre 
Dame in Paris in 1163. See Paris als Kunststatte, Georges 
Riat. (Seemann. Leipzig and Berlin, 1901.) 

3 Archivio detto. Libro Debit e Credit dal 1441 al 1497, 
a. 297 (on the back). 

4 La Guida Artistica, p. 56. Milanesi, Sulla Storia dell* 
Arte Toscana, Scritti Varii, p. 52. 

19 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

remaining of his Pavement work upon which to 
start comparison. The force and charm, however, 
of the compositions, still existingbefore the Western 
Doorway of the Cathedral, show that they must 
have been executed from the designs of no mean 
or inferior draughtsman. 

We find also several references at this date, 1 to 
work done outside the Duomo by Bastiano di 
Corso, a Florentine, fine work by whom, as we 
shall see presently, still exists inside also ; but it 
is not easy to identify the exact portion laid down 
by him and his son Corso, who, as we have seen 
above, was employed on the work before the Porta 
del Perdono. 

It is interesting to notice how sharp and clear is 
the trepanning work in the older of these designs, 
and how close together the, points have been 
drilled. It would appear as if, contrary to the 
method employed in the more modern work, no 
graving tool had been used, nor any stucco to fill 
up the holes and outlines. 

And now we enter the Church. 

3. THE NAVE. 

The first thing that meets the eye is an inscrip- 
tion : 

"CASTISSIMUM VIRGINIS TEMPLUM CASTE MEMENTO 
INGREDI." 

1 Archivio detto. Libro Verde dal 1441 al 1457, a. 89. Libro 
E. IV. Memorie, a. 24. Libro E. 5. Debit, a. 1 10 (on the back). 

2O 



THE PAVEMENT 

It is unknown by whom, or when, this inscription 
was laid down, but it is possible that it was in- 




ALINARI PHOTO.] 



[DESIGNED BY GIOVANNI 
DI MAESTRO STEFANO (?) 



III. HERMES TRISMEGISTUS (No. 33) 

troduced at the same time as the design which 
follows it. 

Beyond this appears the commanding figure of 



21 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

a man in a high crowned head-dress, apparently 
an Eastern Sage, holding out with his right hand, 
to two other men, a book inscribed SUSCIPITE o 
LICTERAS ET LEGES EGYPTii ; while with his left, he 
points to a quotation on a slab supported by two 
winged sphinxes. The principal figure represents 
the semi-mythical Hermes MercuriusTrismegistus, 
who, as we read below, was " Contemporaneus 
Moysi." The two men, one old and turbaned, and 
the other veiled, may perhaps typify the learned 
men of the East and West. (111. III.) 

The introduction of this mysterious personage, 
whose very existence is extremely doubtful, is most 
interesting to the student of Renaissance philo- 
sophical and theological ideas. Since to his fabled 
authorship are attributed a vast number of works 
dealing with ancient wisdom and religious belief, 
as well as many treatises on ecclesiastical cere- 
monial, the placing of him on the threshold of this 
magnificent Temple is not without appropriate 
suggestion. From the principal work attributed 
to him " the Poemander "/ is drawn the quotation 
inscribed on the slab beside him here ; and the 



Sp&v = " The Shepherd of men. De 
Potestate et Sapientia Divina." The Editio Princeps of this 
work appeared in Paris in 1554. It was edited by Parthey, in 
1854, and had been translated into German, by Tiedemann, in 
1781. The connection of the name of Hermes with alchemy 
will explain what is meant by hermetic sealing, and will account 
for the use of the phrase, hermetic Medicine, by Paracelsus ; 
as also for the so-called hermetic Freemasonry, of the middle 
ages. 

22 



THE PAVEMENT 

enthusiastic attitudes of the two Seekers after 
Knowledge before him are very forcibly expressed. 

This admirable design was placed here in 1488, 
under the Rectorship of Alberto Aringhieri, men- 
tioned in the last chapter. He, being a Knight of 
St. John of Jerusalem and of Rhodes, must have 
been familiar with the mystical tastes and theories 
of those who endeavoured to bring the learning, 
lore, and art of Pagan ideals into line with Christian 
Dogma and Faith. Hence the choice under his 
direction of this subject, and, as we shall presently 
see, of the ten Sibyls also. 

It is not definitely known who designed this 
group ; but it is generally supposed, with consider- 
able show of reason, to have been Giovanni di 
Maestro Stefano : 1 and it appears to have been 
the last of the series commissioned by Aringhieri, 
as Rettore, since his occupation of that post ended 
in I498. 2 He seems, though, seven years later, 
to have commissioned Pinturicchio's " Allegory of 
Fortune." 

The next design is that of the Badges or 
Emblems of Siena, surrounded by those of her 
allies. In the middle is the Wolf of Siena suck- 
ling the Twins. In a circle round her are the 
symbols of the following cities ; Florence (a Lion, 
the " Marsocco"} ; Lucca (a Lynx) ; Pisa (a Hare) ; 
Viterbo (an Unicorn) ; Perugia (a Stork) ; Rome 

1 Siena e il suo Territorio, p. 221. 

1 This design was restored by Sig. L. Maccari, in 1866 
(F. Rubini, Dei Restauri, etc.), at a cost of 3,403 lire 30 c. 

23 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

(an Elephant bearing a Tower) ; Orvieto (a 
Goose) ; and Arezzo (a Horse). In the four 




LOMBARDI PHOTO.] [l373- AUTHOR UNKNOWN 

IV. THE BADGES OF SIENA AND THE 

CONFEDERATE CITIES (No. 34) 

(The only panel in mosaic) 

corners of the surrounding square are, Massa (a 
smaller Lion) ; Grosseto (a Goat) ; Volterra (a 
Vulture) ; and Pistoia (a Dragon). (111. IV.) 

24 



THE PAVEMENT 

This, the only portion of the Pavement that is 
really executed in mosaic, was, as we have seen 
already, laid down in 1373 ; but we are unable to 
trace the author. Fragments of the original work 
are still existing in the Museum of the Opera ; 
but the whole design has been replaced by a 
modern copy, carefully made by Sig. Maccari in 
1865.' 

Beyond this is a large geometrical pattern. A 
wheel with twenty-four columnar spokes, in the 
centre of which appears the Imperial Eagle. Of 
this design little or nothing is known ; but the author 
of La Guida Artistica supposes it to have been of 
the same date as that last described (1373). It is 
possible that, before the days of Alberto Aringhieri, 
the whole of the Nave floor, except " Fortune's 
Wheel," in the first bay, may have been covered 
with geometrical or heraldic devices only, as can 
be seen at Lucca, and that all of them, except 
these last two, were removed to make way for 
other more interesting subjects. 

The next scene is Pinturicchio's well-known 
design, called in the old documents " La Storia 
della Fortuna." It might just as well though be 
designated as " the Reward of Virtue," or the 
" Pursuit of Wisdom." (111. V.) 

Wisdom, a sedate woman, royally robed, veiled, 
and crowned with a jewelled wreath, is throned 
upon the upper platform of a small precipitous 

1 For which 8,900 lire 48 c. were paid. 
25 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

rock in the midst of the sea. The platform is 
covered with growing flowers, as is also the wind- 
ing path which leads to it. On Wisdom's right 
hand stands Socrates, holding a book, to whom 
she offers a branch of palm. On her left is Crates, 
who is hastily emptying into the sea a basketful 
of rings, chains, and other jewels. To him she 
extends a closed volume. Over the head of 
Wisdom, on a tablet, appears the following inscrip- 
tion : 

HUC PROPERATE VIRI, SALEBROSUM SCANDITE MONTEM 
PULCHRA LABORIS ERUNT PREMIA PALMA QUIES. 

On the path below, which, besides flowers, is 
strewn with stones and over-run with reptiles and 
small animals, is a crowd of ten men, seekers after 
Wisdom, who apparently have just been landed 
upon the Island by Fortune. The attitudes of 
these men, some of whom at least appear to be 
portraits, are very striking. Alone at the head of 
the procession strides a stately personage a 
patron perhaps of art and learning. Next to him 
an old man, leaning on a crutch-handled staff, 
plods determinedly along. Following him, a 
younger man looks back and shakes his fist at 
Fortune. Behind him stand six figures with 
varied expressions of interest or desire. In front 
of them an elderly man with a beard has sunk 
down exhausted, his book clasped in his left arm, 
too weary to move on. On the extreme right of 
the picture stands Fortune, a nude woman with a 

26 




ALINARI PHOTO.] [DESIGNED BY 1'INTUKICCHIO 

V. AN ALLEGORY OF FORTUNE (No. 36) 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

cornucopia in her right hand. She is the most 
striking figure in the composition. Her left foot 
is resting on a globe, perhaps to indicate her 
instability, while with her right she seems to push 
off the boat, shattered and broken-masted, in 
which these travellers have journeyed to the 
island. Above her head she holds a sail, which 
the wind has filled out, one end of which, wound 
round her body, is grasped also by her right hand. 
Obviously this design is one of those conceits so 
dear to the Renaissance mind. Fortune has, 
with favouring breeze, but through stormy waters, 
brought the seekers after Knowledge to the Mount 
of Wisdom ; and the artist has endeavoured in 
these ten figures to symbolize the varied character 
of her votaries. Socrates stands calmly waiting 
for his reward ; Crates earns his by contempt of 
all things worldly. 

Pinturicchio received on the i3th of March, 
I5O4, 1 twelve lire for this design, which was laid 
down under his direction, probably by Paolo Man- 
nucci, in I5o6. 2 

1 1504 (St. Sen.), 13 Marzo. A maestro Bernardino Pin- 
turicchio dipentore per sua fadiga d' avere fatto uno cartone 
di disengnio per la Storia de la Fortuna, la quale al presente 
si fa in Duomo questo di 13 Marzo -lire dodici sol. - contanti 
per detto messer Alberto nostro. lo ho fatto boni a messer 
Alberto per una soma di grano de' al detto maestro Bernardino. 
Archivio detto. Libro d'Entrata e Uscita. 1504 a 47. 

2 1506. In detto anno si faceva la storia della fortuna. 
Forse fu lavorata da Paolo Mannucci Archivio detto. Libro 
Rosso d'un Leone a 10 ? Milanesi MS. notes p. 32 (on the 

28 



The last design in the Nave is perhaps the 
oldest of all ; but the actual piece of Pavement 
that we now see is a complete renovation by 
Signer Maccari in December, 1864, costing 
2,491 lire 98 c. Tizio l tells us that it was executed 
in 1372, and though he does not say who was the 
author of the design, or who executed the work, 
we know that Andrea di Minuccio was Operaio 
at this time, 2 and that under his direction, two 
years later, the work at " the foot of the Choir" was 
completed. 

We see a wheel with eight columnar spokes. 
To give an effect of rotatory motion, the border is 
inlaid in small lozenges of black and white marble, 
arranged to represent cogs. At the top of the 
wheel sits a King, enthroned and crowned, with 
orb and sceptre. Clinging to the two sides and 
bottom are three figures of men, whose anxiety 
to retain their hold, as the wheel revolves, is 
forcibly expressed. The wheel is surrounded by 
a continuous band of black and white marble, 
which, looped octagonally at the angles, incloses, 

back). Compare also Landi, who in his Descrizione del 
Pavimento, although by mistake he applies his reference to 
the Wheel of Fortune, tells us that the Rectorship was in com- 
mission at this time. He states further that Paolo Mannucci 
was, on the i6th of April, 1506, paid 24 scudi for the execution 
of this work. 

1 1372. Novembris decima die Edis sacre maioris pavimen- 
tum marmoreum quod medium est, stratum fuit, et fortune 
rota cum hominibus posita fuit. Tizio, Hist. Sen. ad annum. 
Cf. Borghesi and Faluschi MSS. Lists of Operaii. 
29 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

in the spaces so formed, half lengths of the follow- 
ing four Sages : Epictetus, Aristotle, Seneca and 




LOMBARDI PHOTO.] ['372. AUTHOR UNKNOWN 

VI. THE WHEEL OF FORTUNE (No. 37) 

Euripides. Each Sage holds a scroll, with a 
quotation from one of his own writings. (111. VI.) 



This design may be compared with another 
Wheel of Fortune, inlaid by Domenico del Coro 
in the lower panel of a door in the Chapel of the 
Palazzo Comunale. Padre Micheli calls it the 
Wheel of Ambition, 1 although the wheel itself is 
inscribed " Rota della Fortuna" He thus de- 
scribes it : " To the lower part is a man clinging, 
beside whom is written the inscription ' So senza 
Regno' (I am without a Kingdom). Half way 
up the wheel, to his right, clings another figure of 
a man, this time with the head of an ass, and the 
inscription ' Regnero ' (I will reign). On the top of 
the wheel is seated an ass, with the word ' Regno ' 
(I reign) ; and lastly, on the other side, going 
downwards, is an ass with a man's head, and the 
motto ' Regnai' (I have reigned)." The author 
of this inlaid panel, who must in his former posi- 
tion of Capo-maestro, have known well the larger 
and older design, probably wished to improve 
upon it ; but it is somewhat remarkable to find it 
placed among panels symbolising the Articles of 
Christian Faith. 

Let us now turn to 

4. THE SOUTH AISLE. 

Both this and the North Aisle are adorned with 
representations of the ten Sibyls, five in each. 
These Sibyls were all placed here under the Rec- 
torship of Alberto Aringhieri in the years I482-.83.* 

1 La Guida Artistica, p. 97, Note. 

2 1482. " Quinque interea Sibille, Albert! Aringhieri Editui 

31 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

The introduction of these mythical personages 
into ecclesiastical art was not unusual at this 
period, and they take their place beside the 
Prophets, as forerunners of Christ. 

They form a curious link between the Pagan 
and Christian world of thought. According to 
Greek ideas, Sibyls were women under the in- 
spiration of the Deity, but they are not spoken of 
at all by either Homer or Herodotus : and the first 
Greek writer who mentions them is Heraclitus 
(circa 500 B.C.). Aristophanes, Plato and other 
early writers only mention one : Heraclides Pon- 
ticus, a pupil of Plato, speaks of three (the 
Erythraean, Phrygian, and Hellespontine) ; but 
Pausanias gives four (the Libyan, Erythraean, 
Cuman, and Hebrew). Of these the oldest was 
said to have been the Libyan : though the best 
known to modern times are undoubtedly the 
Delphic, the Cuman (visited by tineas), and the 
Tiburtine, who is said to have foretold Christ to 
the Emperor Augustus. 

By Christian writers they are spoken of first 
in the second century A.D., but do not appear in 
art until the eleventh. In the handbook of Mount 
Athos we read of the " Wise Sibyl" ; and side 
by side with David, one of these prophetesses 

opera, Pavimento Edis majoris in campanilis deambulario 
constrate sunt." Tizio, Hist. Sen., vol. vi., 66. 

1483. " Quinque Sibille ad levam majoris Edis versus Cap- 
pellam Cardinalis Franrisci (Piccolomini), Alberto Aringherio 
Edituo, posite sunt." Vol. vi., 87. 

32 



THE PAVEMENT 

appears in the Sequence of Thomas of Celano : 
the Dies Irae (circa I253). 1 They have no place 
in early mosaics, but one of the most ancient 
representations of a Sibyl is that of the Tiburtine 
in the church of Sta. Maria Aracoeli in Rome. 

The first, and perhaps the most poetic Choir of 
them, is on the pulpit of S. Andrea at Pistoia, 
sculptured by Giovanni Pisano in 1301 ; but from 
that time, until the fifteenth century, we find no 
other groups of them. Then appeared a great 
many representations, and their number increases 
rapidly to as many as thirteen, the last of whom 
is the Queen of Sheba, who is called Nichaula, 
and is fabled to have foretold to King Solomon 
the Advent of a Messiah. The usual numbers, 
however, are three, four, six and ten ; and in such 
groups they have been designed by the greatest 
artists. Giotto, 2 Perugino, 3 Pinturicchio, 4 Raphael, 5 
and Michael Angelo, 6 are but a few of these. 
Not only throughout Italy, but to the Northern 
Art Schools of Germany and Flanders, the same 
cult spread ; and we find them introduced into 
sculpture, painting and engraving. Sibyls assist, 

Dies Irae ! Dies ilia ! 
Solvit Saeclum in favilla. 
Teste David cum Sibilla. 

2 Tower of the Duomo, Florence. 

3 Sala del Cambio, Perugia. 

4 Sta. Maria del Popolo, Rome. 

5 Sta. Maria della Pace, Rome. 
i; The Sixtine Chapel, Rome. 

33 t) 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

as interested and sympathizing spectators, in every 
scene of Holy Writ. They meet us even in painted 
windows and illustrated books of devotion. 1 -It is 
therefore not remarkable to find them here ; and, 
if one recognizes the attitude of mind, with which 
they were regarded by the Renaissance Catholic, 
they are even most appropriate. The number 
chosen is in accordance with that fixed by Varro, 
and with the exception of the Cumaean, who seems 
to take the place of the Cimmerian in his list, the 
choice of prophetesses is the same. 

For the purpose of study, let us begin at the 
Western door ; and commence with 

The Delphic Sibyl. 

Delphi, famous in ancient times for its Oracles, 
would not unnaturally suggest itself to these early 
students of Greek art and literature as one of the 
places whence prophecies of the Redemption of 
the World should come. Hence Plutarch calls 
her the first of the Sibyls. According to Pau- 
sanias, the Erythraean Sibyl, although a native of 
Marpessus, or Erythrae, in the Troad, lived mostly 
at Samos, and visited Clarus, Delos, and Delphi, 

1 It may interest English readers to be reminded that, at the 
famous fete given at Kenilworth Castle by the Earl of Leicester 
in the summer of 1575, the first group of fantastic personages 
that approached to greet the Virgin Queen on her arrival were 
robed in the likeness of ten Sibyls. 

See Queen Elizabeth, by Mandell Creighton, late Bishop 
of London, p. 156. (Longmans, London, 1899.) 

34 



at all of which places were shrines dedicated to 
the Pythian Apollo, whose special gift this form of 
prophetic utterance was said to be. Later tradition 
would seem to have divided her attributes into at 
least three, and given them separate existence. 
Here she is shown as a stately woman, bearing in 
her left hand a decorated horn from which issue 
flames. Her right hand rests on a tablet supported 
by a winged sphinx, which bears the words : 

IPSVM TVVM CO 

GNOSCE DEVM 

QVI DEI FILIVS EST 

(Know thy God Himself, Who is the Son of 

God.) 

Beneath her feet a label records her name, and 
the fact that she is mentioned by Chrysippus in 
his Book of Divination. We find l that this figure 
was executed in 1482 by Giuliano di Biagio and 
Vito di Marco, who probably also made the design 
for the work, as the payment they received was 
579 lire 10 soldi. We may compare this amount 
with the sum paid in 1866-69 for the restoration 
of the same Sibyl. It was 2,341 lire 17 c. 

1 1482. Luglio 19. Giuliano di Biagio, e Vito di Marco, 
scarpellini, deno avere a di 19 di Luglio 1482 lire cinqueciento 
settantanove e soldi x : sonno per un quadro di marmo o pavi- 
mento anno fatto in Duomo rincontro all'altare di S. Chalisto, 
a quadrucci bianchi e neri, e fregi rossi, neri e bianchi e la 
Sibilla Delficha in mezzo campeggiata di nero. Archivio detto. 
Libro Giallo delle tre Rose a 342 e 345. 

35 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

The Cumaean Sibyl. 

It is not clear why this Sibyl is so named, espe- 
cially as it provokes confusion with the more 
celebrated " Sibilla Cumana" Apparently the 
Cimmerian Sibyl is intended. Ferdinand Piper 
tells us that she was sometimes styled the Italian 
Sibyl, 1 and mentions other variations of the name : 
" Cymea, Chymerea or Chimica." According to 
the label, supported behind her by two charming 
putti, she is said to have been mentioned by Piso 
in his Annals. Here she is represented as an 
excited-looking woman, with loose hair scattered 
over her shoulders. She bears in her hand a 
tablet, with the following words inscribed upon it : 

ET MORTIS FATVM FINI 
ET, TRIVM DIERVM SO 
MNO SUSCEPTO TUNC 
AMORTVIS REGRESSVS 
INLUCEM VENIET PRIM 
VM RESURRECTIONIS 
INITIVM OSTENDENS. 

(He shall accomplish the fate of death, having 
undergone a sleep of three days. Then being 
returned from the dead, he shall come into the 
light, showing the first beginning of the resurrec- 
tion). 

This design is said to be the work of Luigi di 

1 F. Piper, Mythologie der christlichen Kunst, pp. 473 and 
497 (note). 

36 



THE PAVEMENT 

Ruggiero, called r Armellino, and Vito di Marco j 1 
but, except a notice dated 1482 2 of payments to 
the first-named worker for marble cut by him for 
work on " li spazi di Duomo e per le Sibille" we 
have no further record as to the author of this 
particular design, or its cost. We find, however, 
that in the restoration above referred to, it cost 
2,581 lire 80 c. 

The Cuman Sibyl. 

This Sibyl is famed in poetic story as having 
been visited by ^Eneas : an interview described 
with much graphic minuteness by Virgil, in Book 
VI. of the /Eneid. Endless legends have accu- 
mulated in connection with her, and her presence 
is associated with many spots in and around 
Naples. Ferdinand Piper states that the names 
of Amalthea, Demophile, and Herophile have 
been given to her by different writers, 3 and that 
Justin Martyr asserts that she was daughter of 
Berosus, and came from Babylon to Campania. 
She is said to have lived for a thousand years ; 

1 La Guida Artistica, p. 24. 

2 1482. A Luigi di Ruggeri scarpellino e fameglio de' nostri 
Magnifici Signori, altrimenti chiamato 1'Armellino, lire ciento 
quatro : e sono per cavatura di libre ciento trentana (sic) nove 
di marmo rosso a chavate a Gierfalco a sol : xv braccio, cioe 
sonno braccie quadre, di piu tavole, e fregi per li spazi di 
Duomo e per le Sibille. Archivio detto. Libro d'un Leone 
a 34 (on the back). 

3 F. Piper, Mythologie der christlichen Xunst, p. 473. But 
the identification of the Sibyls entails immense confusion. 

37 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

and to have been the ancient prophetess, who 
offered the Sibylline Books to Tarquin. These 
books, the oldest collection of which was, accord- 
ing to tradition, made about the time of Solon 
and Cyrus, by the Sibyl of Marpessus (the Ery- 
thraean Sibyl), at Gergis, on Mount Ida, found 
their way thence to Erythrae ; from there to Cumae ; 
and so to Rome. In 83 B.C. they were burned; 
but fragments of their contents continued to exist 
orally until A.D. 12, when they were collected and 
revised by the Emperor Augustus, and were sur- 
viving in 363. In the year 400 they were again 
destroyed by Stilicho ; and the present so-called 
Sibylline books are a spurious invention of Jewish 
and Christian writers. 

Here she appears as a somewhat severe old 
woman, with a veil wound round her head. In her 
right hand she carries the mistletoe bough of the 
Virgilian story ; and with her left she clasps to her 
three books. Piled on the ground to her right, and 
burning, are six more, representing those destroyed 
by her in the Tarquinian legend ; and above her 
left shoulder two flying cherubs bear a tablet, with 
the following inscription : 

VLTIMA CVMAEI VENIT I AM 
CARMINIS AETAS MAGNUS 
ABINTEGRO SAECLORVM 
NASCITVR ORDO IAM RE 
DIT ET VIRGO, REDEVNT 
SATVRNIA REGNA, IAM 
38 



THE PAVEMENT 

NOVA PROGENIES CAELO 
DEMITTITVR ALTO 

(Now has come the last period of Cumaean song, 

A great order of the ages is born afresh. 

The Virgin now returns ; the kingdoms of Saturn 

return. 
Now a new progeny is sent down from lofty 

Heaven.) 

Her label bears the words " Sibilla Cumana me- 
minit Virgilius. Eclog. IV." 

This figure is the work of Giovanni di Maestro 
Stefano di Giovanni and his scholars, and was 
executed by him in 1482. 1 He received for it the 
sum of 697 lire, 9 soldi and 2 c. It was restored at 
the same time as the other Sibyls, in 1866-69, at 
a cost of 2,743 lire 6 c. 

The Erythraean Sibyl. 

This Sibyl, as we have already seen, is one of 
those named in the earliest lists by Pausanias. 
She is said to have been a native of Marpessus or 
Erythrae in the Troad, and he, as well as some 
other writers, gives her the name of Herophile ; 
one authority however speaks of a Trojan Sibyl, 
whom he calls H erophila, and names the Erythraean 

1 1482, Luglio 19. Maestro Giovanni di maestro Stefano e 
compagni scharpellini, deno avere lire 697. 9 2., sonno per 
uno quadro e pavimento an fatto in Duomo a rinpetto de la 
Madona anticha a marmi bianchi, rossi e neri con la Sibilla in 
mezzo a tutte loro spese. Archivio detto. Libro Giallo delle 
tre Rose, a 342 e 345. 

39 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

one, Symmachia. She lived, as we have said be- 
fore when writing of the Delphic Sibyl, chiefly at 
Samos, but visited Clarus, Delos and Delphi. This 
would, no doubt, account for the difficulty in dis- 
tinguishing the various place-names attached to 
these different women. As we have also seen above, 
the Sibylline books are said to have been once 
preserved at Erythrae, and Lactantius attributes 
to her the famous acrostic which announces the 
Coming of the Anointed One, Son of God Him- 
self, as Saviour of the World. Here she is depicted 
as a tall patrician lady, with a rather forbidding 
countenance, and a very curious head-dress, which 
partially envelops her face. Her right hand 
clasps a closed volume, while the left rests on an 
open book, supported by a carved lectern. On 
the pages of this book are written the following 
words : 

DE EXCELSO ET NASCETVR 

CAELORVM HA IN DIEBVS- NO 

B1TACVLO PRO V1SS1MIS DE VIR 

SPEXIT DOMI GINE HEBRAEA 

NVS ' HVMILES IN CVNABVLIS 
SVOS TERRAE 

(From the High Habitation of Heaven God has 
looked down on His humble (servants), and shall 
be born in these most recent days of a Hebrew 
Virgin in the cradle of the earth.) 

Beside her on a stool is a tablet, telling us that 
this is the Erythraean Sibyl, whom Apollodorus 

40 



THE PAVEMENT 

claimed as his fellow citizen. This Sibyl was 
designed and executed by Antonio Federighi in 
1482 ; and we are told that he received 649 lire 
17 soldi for it. 1 It is interesting to note that this 
and the Samian are the only Sibyls signed by their 
designers. Federighi's evident taste for faithful 
representation of the costumes of his period, ap- 
parent also in his other works, would account for 
the rather bizarre head-dress above referred to. 
The cost of restoration of this Sibyl was 2,043 ^ re 
13 c. 

The Persian Sibyl. 

Ferdinand Piper, quoting a scholiast on Plato, 2 
identifies this Sibyl with the one elsewhere variously 
called Chaldaean, Babylonian, Egyptian and He- 
brew. He tells us further, that tradition called 
her also the daughter of Berosus, and daughter-in- 
law of Noah, which raises confusion with the 
Cuman. 3 He adds, also, that sometimes the name 
of Sabbe is given to her, and sometimes that of 
Sambetha. Nothing more is known of this Sibyl ; 
but it is worth noting that the prophecy here at- 
tributed to her is the only one that does not deal 
with the Birth or Atonement of Christ. 

1 1482, Luglio 19. Maestro Antonio di Federighi, maestro di 
pietra, de' avere lire 649.17, sonno per braccia ciento trentasse 
13/16 d'uno quadro, o pavimento rincontro all' altare di Santo 
Antonio a marmi bianchi, rossi e neri. Archivio detto. Libro 
detto, a 342 e 345. 

2 F. Piper, Mythologie der christlichen Kunst, p. 473 

3 See above. 

41 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

She is represented as a pleasant-looking woman 
of middle age, with her head bound up in a simple 
veil. In her left hand she carries a book, and 
with her right she draws attention to a tablet, 
resting on a carved pedestal, with an inscription 
as follows : 

PANIBVS SOLVM QVINQVE 

ET PISCIBVS DVOBVS HO 

MINVM MILLIA IN FOENO 
QVINQVE SATIABIT RELI 

QVIAS TOLLENS XII 

COPHINOS IMPLEBIT 
IN SPEM MVLTORVM. 

(With five loaves and two fishes He will satisfy 
the hunger of five thousand men on the grass. 
Taking up the remains, he will fill twelve baskets, 
for the hope of many.) 

Beneath her feet, a label informs us that it is 
Nicanor who bears record of her. Urbano di 
Pietro da Cortona, Antonio Federighi, Vito da 
Marco and Luigi Ruggiero (I' A r me I lino] received 
commissions to execute these Sibyls on September 
2Oth, 1481 j 1 but Urbano does not appear to have 
received his payment of 605 lire 12 soldi for the 
execution of this one, until October, I483. 2 The 
sum paid to restore his work was 3,153 lire 84 c. 

1 1481, Settembre 20. Archivio de' Contratti di Siena. 
Rogiti di Ser Giovanni di Danielle. 

' 1483, 8 Ottobre. Mo. Urbano di Pietro scultore die avere 
a di viij dottobre 1483, L. 605. 12 per br. 1276 mezzo di spazo 

42 



5. THE NORTH AISLE. 

The Albunean Sibyl. 

This prophetess, as we gather from the label 
placed beneath her feet, was also styled the 7V- 
burtine Sibyl, because she was " honoured as Divine 
at Tibiir" From a Christian point of view she is 
perhaps the best known of all the Sibyls, and the 
representations of her in art, still extant, are 
many and very varied in conception. 1 The Em- 
peror Augustus is said to have visited her, and, 
as a result of her prophecy, erected the altar in- 
scribed " ARA PRIMOGENITI DEI," now inclosed in 
the Cappella Santa (or di S. Elena) of the Church 
of Sta. Maria Aracoeli in Rome. 

She is here represented as a tall and youngish 
woman, with a curious pointed head-dress. In her 
right hand she carries an open book ; while above 
her left shoulder, and attached by a ribbon to the 
neck of a small cherub, is a tablet on which are 
the words : 

NASCETVR CHRISTVS 
IN BETHLEHEM ANNVN 



in uno quadro a lavorato in duomo con una Sibilla rinpetto 
aluscio del chanpanile. Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo di 
Siena. Libro Giallo di tre Rose a 380. 

1 In Siena one may notice two other pictures of her : one in 
the Sacristy of the Church of Sta. Maria sotto le Volte del 
Ospedale ; and the other the celebrated painting by Baldassare 
Peruzzi, in the Church of the Fonte-giusta. 

43 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

CIABITVR IN NAZARETH 
REGNANTE TAVRO PACI 
FICO FUNDATORE QVIE 
TIS. O FELIX MATER CV 
IVSVBERA ILLVM LACTA 
BVNT 

(Christ shall be born in Bethlehem. He shall be 
announced in Nazareth, the peaceful Taurus (the 
Bull) being in the ascendant, the founder of peace. 
Oh Happy Mother whose breast shall give him 
milk.) 

This Sibyl was designed by Benvenuto di Gio- 
vanni del Guasta in 1483, 1 and is a fine specimen 
of his work ; but it is not known definitely who 
executed this, or indeed any of the four remaining 
Sibyls. We read, however, that Giuliano di Biagio 
was in this year paid 41 lire 15 soldi for the car- 
riage of 9,310 Ibs. of marble for this work, 2 so pre- 
sumably he and his assistants executed some if 
not all of them, 2,149 li re 35 c - were paid for the 
restoration of this Sibyl in 1866-69. 

The Samian Sibyl. 
Of this Sibyl we know nothing, and can only 

1 1483. Archivio detto. Libro Rosso d'un Leone ad 
annum a. 38. 

2 Giuliano di Biagio, scarpellino, ha lire quarantuna, soldi 
quindici per vettura di libre 9,310 di marmi rechati da Gierfalco 
per li pavimenti de le Sibille verso Paltare dei Calzolari. 
Archivio detto. Libro detto ad annum a. 35. 

44 




AI.INARI PHOTO.] [DESIGNED BY MATTEO DI GIOVANNI BARTOLI 

VII THE SAMIAN SIBYL (No. 29) 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

point out, as in the case of the Delphic and Ery- 
thraean Sibyls, that the latter of those prophetesses, 
though born in the Troad, made her principal 
abode at Samos : and that thus these three may 
have been one and the same person. We are told, 
by the label beneath her representation, that she is 
spoken of by Eratosthenes, a writer quoted by 
Lactantius, and whose work was one of the first 
books printed in Italy in 1465. 

This figure is one of the most beautiful of all 
the ten Sibyls, and well it may be, seeing that it 
was designed by that delightful draughtsman and 
earnest artist, Matteo di Giovanni Bartoli. A 
slender princess, with flowing draperies, she sup- 
ports with her left hand a handsomely-bound open 
volume. A curious and characteristic feature of 
Matteo's work is evident in the charming cherub- 
head, with outspread wings, that clasps a girdle 
round her robe below the hips. Beside her on a 
tablet, upborne by two lion-headed figures, is the 
following inscription : 

TV ENIM STVLTA IVDAEA 
DEVM TVVM NON CO 
GNOVISTI LVCENTEM 
MORTALIVM MENTI- 
BVS SED ET SPINIS CO 
RONASTI HORRIDVM 
QVE FEL MISCVISTI 

(For thou, foolish Judaea ! hast not known thy 
God, shining in the minds of men. But thou hast 

46 



THE PAVEMENT 

both crowned Him with thorns, and hast mixed 
for Him nauseous gall.) 

At the foot of the tablet is the designer's signa- 
ture, with the date 1483. (111. VII.) 

Matteo di Giovanni received for this design 

o 

4 lire only, 1 on May 23rd, 1483 ; but it cost 2,654 
lire 52 c. to restore. 



Phrygian Sidy I. 

Of this Sibyl also nothing is known, though 
she too has been confounded with the Delphic 
Sibyl. Most of the longer lists, however, include 
both. From the label designating her we learn 
that she prophesied at Ancyra. She is here 
brought before us attired in what we may suppose 
the artist intended to represent Phrygian or semi- 
Oriental dress. She holds aloft in her left hand 
a small book open at the words : 

SOLVS 

DEUS DEVS 

SVM ET AL1VS 

NON EST 

(I am the only God, and there is no other God.) 
Her right hand directs attention to a tablet, on 

1 1483, Maggio 23. Matteo di Giovanni, dipentoreadi 23 di 
Maggio lire 4.-sonno per disegno fe d'una Sibilla dinanzi all' 
altare de' Chalzolari. Archivio detto. Entrata e Uscita ad 
annum a. 45. Cf. also Archivio detto. Libro Rosso d'un Leone. 
Debit e Credit a. 35-38. 

47 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

a lyre-shaped support, between which are seen 
half-length figures and heads of nude suppliants, 
apparently rising from the grave. 

The inscription on the tablet runs as follows : 

TVBA DE CARLO VOCEM LV 
CTVOSAM EM ITET TARTARE 
VM CHAOS OSTENDET DEHIS 
CENS TERRA VENIET AD TRIBV 
NAL DEI REGES OMNES DEVS 
IPSE IVDICANS PIOS SIMVL 
ET IMPIOS TVNC DEMVM IM 
PIOS IN IGNEM ET TENEBRAS 
MITTET QVI AVTEM PIETA 
TEM TENET ITERV VIVENT 

(The trumpet shall utter from Heaven a mourn- 
ful sound. Yawning earth shall show Tartarean 
Chaos. All Kings shall come before the Tribunal 
of God. God Himself judging the Evil and the 
Good together. Then at length He will send the 
wicked into fire and darkness. But whosoever 
will keep righteousness shall live again.) 

Luigi di Ruggiero (I' A rmcllino] and Vito di 
Marco are generally reputed to have devised and 
executed this design, but no record exists on the 
subject. The cost of restoration was 2,433 ^ re 
91 c. 

The Hellespontine Sibyl. 

The inscription beneath the feet of this Sibyl 

48 




ALINARI PHOTO.] [DESIGNED BY NEROCCIO DI LANDI 

VIII. THE HELLESPONTINE SIBYL (No. 31) 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

says that she was born on Trojan soil, and was, 
according to Heraclides, a contemporary of Cyrus. 
Hence, no doubt, she also has been confused 
with the Erythraean Sibyl. It is very probable 
indeed, as we have before hinted, that time, tradi- 
tion, and the varying expressions of different 
writers have divided the personality of that one 
Sibyl into several, according to the various places 
that she is reported to have visited. 1 

The figure is a graceful one, but suggests 
somewhat gigantic proportions. Her hair flows 
over her shoulders, though partially confined by 
ribbons, and crowned with a jewelled diadern. In 
her left hand she holds a half-open book. Her 
robe is loosely confined by a small girdle set with 
gems. 

On her left, a tablet is borne by two columns, 
seated in front of which are a Wolf and a Lion 
(the Marzocco], with their hands amicably clasped : 
an allusion perhaps to the then recent treaty 
between Siena and Florence. 2 The inscription on 
the tablet runs thus : 

IN CIBVM FEL IN SITIM ACE 

TVM DEDERVNT HANG 

IN HOSPITALITATIS MOSTR 

1 It is worth noting, though, that all the three Sibyls mentioned 
by Heraclides Ponticus (see above) are, according to this 
supposition, variations of the same personage. 

2 Sismondi, Histoir des Republiques Italiennes du Moyen 
Age, vol. xi. ; chap. 88. 

50 



THE PAVEMENT 

ABVNT MENSAM ; TEMPLI 
VERO SCINDETVR VELVM 
ET MEDIO DIE NOX ERIT 
TENEBROSA TRIBVS HORIS. 

(For food gall, in his thirst they gave him 
vinegar, they will show this table of inhospitality. 
The veil of the Temple shall indeed be rent, and 
at mid-day there shall be black night for three 
hours.) 

This fine design was the work of Neroccio di 
Bartolommeo di Benedetto Landi in 1483,* and is 
a noble specimen of his style. We do not know 
what he received for the work, but it is probable 
that it was the same sum as that given to Matteo 
di Giovanni. Nor, as we have seen, do we know 
who executed this and the adjacent designs. 2 
(111. VIII.) 

The Libyan Sibyl. 

According to Pausanias, the Libyan was the 
oldest of all the Sibyls, and was the daughter of 
Zeus and Lamia. More than this nothing is 
known of her, but her label tells us that she is 
spoken of by Euripides. She is a striking figure, 
her black marble face, neck, hands and feet, pro- 
ducing a remarkable effect. She is veiled and 
crowned with a garland of flowers. In her left 

1 Archivio detto. Libro detto a 38. 

2 The restoration of it cost 2,411 lire 47 c. 

51 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

hand she grasps a small open scroll, while in her 
right she shows an open book with the words : 





DAB1T 


COLA 


IN VER 


PROS 


BERA 


ACCIPI 


INNO 


ENS TA 


CENS 


CEBIT 


DORSV 




M 



(Receiving buffets he will be silent, to blows he 
will give his innocent back.) 

On her left is a tablet, borne by intertwined 
serpents, the words written upon it being : 

IN MANVS INIQVAS 
VENIET. DABVNT DEO 
ALAPAS MANIBVS IN 
CESTIS. MISERABILIS. 
ET IGNOMINIOSVS. 
MISERABILIBVS SPEM 
PRAEBEBIT. 

(He shall come into unjust hands. With impure 
hands they shall give stripes to God. He miser- 
able and in ignominy will give hope to the 
miserable.) 

Guidoccio Cozzarelli was the author of this 
design in 1483,* but here again there exists no 

1 1483. Guidoccio (Cozzarelli) disegna la Sibilla avanti 
1'altare dei SS. quattro Coronati. Tizio, Hist. Sen., vol. vi. 
Cf. also Archivio detto. Libro detto. Debit, e Credit, a 35-38. 

52 



THE PAVEMENT 

record of the sum paid for it. We may suppose 
though that these designs were all paid for at 
about the same rate. 1 The expense of its restora- 
tion was 2,352 lire 16 c. 

With the examination of the Libyan Sibyl, we 
find ourselves again at the Western end of the 
Church, and must betake ourselves back to 



6. THE NORTH TRANSEPT. 

ThisTransept is covered with three large designs, 
all executed during the Rectorship of Alberto 
Aringhieri ; two of which, at least, may have some 
political significance. 

The first we come to is 

The Expulsion of Herod (No. 27). 

This vast composition, designed by Benvenuto 
Giovanni del Guasta in 1484-85, and for which he 
received 78 lire, 2 is full of charming grouping and 

1 Abate Faluschi states as much in his MS. notes on the 
Duomo Pavement (p. 31 on the back), but so far I have been 
unable to find any definite authority on the point. 

2 1484. Hoc Anno Alberti Aringherii cura quoniam Edituus 
erat . . . historian! Herodis cum Socero Areta dimicantis . . . 
constrata est et decenti opificio pavimento inserta. Tizio, 
Hist. Sen., vol. vi., p. 137. 

1485. Ottobre 3. Maestro Benvenuto di Maestro Giovanni 
dipintore die avere per insino a'iii d'Otobre 1485, lire sesantotto 
sonno per disegniatura del pavimento s'e fatto della storia di 
rincontro alia chappella di Santa Chaterina (now S. Giovanni). 
Archivio detto. Libro detto a no. 

53 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

delightful suggestion. It not impossibly alludes 
to the expulsion, which had then but recently 
taken place, of Pandolfo Petrucci and his followers. 
It must be remembered that, though Siena at 
this period was not involved in important external 
historical events, her internal history was one long 
record of party faction and strife, in which Arin- 
ghieri himself played a not unimportant part. 
(111. IX.) 

Benvenuto was a consummate draughtsman, 
and he was ably supported here by Bastiano di 
Francesco, who designed the delightful border of 
winged lions that frames the picture (111. XI.), and 
made sixty letters of marble for the same work. 1 

We find several notices as to sums paid to work- 
men for executing this frieze, but only one speaks 
also of work on the design itself. From this, how- 

1 1484. 12 Gennaio . . . E plu L. sedici sono per fare 
disegni spolvari e dipegnarli overo disegnarli a fregi della storia 
attorno si fa rincontra al altare di Santa Catherina. Archivio 
detto. Libro d'un Lione a 107 (on the back). 

1483-4. 13 Gennaio. M. di Bastiano di Francesco dipintore 
et scharpellino a di xiii di Gennaio L 18, sonno per parte di sua 
fatiga a disegniare elfregio de la storia di s. Chaterina (now the 
Chapel of S. Giovanni) in Duomo. 

Nel 3 Aprile gli si danno quaranta sol : per resto di L. 18 per 
60 lettere di marmo nela Storia fatta in Duomo. Archivio 
detto. Libro detto a 87. 

Apparently, judging from the date, the frieze and these letters 
may have preceded the execution of Benvenuto di Giovanni's 
design.- The letters referred to probably were those inscrip- 
tions that we still see, recording the work done under the 
directorship of Aringhieri, and the dates at which it was 
executed. 

54 



ever, we learn that it was executed by Bernardino 
Antonio and Cristofano di Pietro Paolo del Quar- 
antotto. 1 The other workmen employed on the 
frieze were Vito di Marco, 2 and Bartolommeo di 
Domenico. 3 With the exception of Vito di Marco, 
we have no record of these men, apart from 
notices of their work done on this Pavement. 
Perhaps they were scholars or apprentices of the 
better-known masters, and therefore not recorded 
more particularly. We also read that certain 
millers, by name Giusto Giovanni and Michele di 
Ludovicho, were paid 1 5 lire 14 c. for the porterage 
of 7,870 Ibs. of black marble used in this design, 
and that " del onperadore." 4 (111. X.) 

1 1484-5 12 Gennaio. Bernardino d 'Antonio e Cristofano di 
Pietro Paolo del Quarantotto lavorano nel fregio del Leone e 
nella storia quando fu cacciato Erode. Archivio detto. Libro 
detto. a in. 

2 1484. 3 Aprile. Vito di Marcho scharpellino die avere a 
di iii Aprile L. cientoventi sol. sette den. otto sono per B* (?) 
tre e uno terzo di fregio a lavorato a uno Hone nel fregio de la 
storia del pavimento rimpetto alaltare overo chappella dinanzi 
a la Chappella nuovamente si lavora per lobraccio di (sic) Giovanni 
in Duomo. Archivio detto. Libro detto. Debit e Credit a 

74- 

'' 1485. 25 Aprile. Bartolomeo di Domenico scarpellino die 
avere a di xxv Aprile L. 77, soldi 18, den. 6. sonno per B* (?) 
otto quadri di fregio del Lione e per B " (?) sete e cinque otavi 
&\ fregio . . . intorno a la storia derode ruando fu chacciato. 
Archivio detto. Libro detto. a 10. 

4 1485. Giusto. Gio. e Michele di Ludovicho nostri mugnari 
dieno avere - Eprima per vetturadi libri sette millia ottociento 
settanta di marmi neri rechati da chasciano de le donne per la 
storia dinanzi ala chapella si fa per san giovanni e raconciare la 

56 



THE PAVEMENT 

The composition is most graceful and full of 
force. It illustrates an episode in the struggle 
between Herod Antipas and his brother-in-law 
Aretas, as a result of which the former had to 
evacuate his kingdom. The picture has been 
well restored, a re-engraving of the marble slabs 
on the old lines having been, to a large extent, 
sufficient for the main work, though the frieze 
has had to be entirely renewed. A group of 
soldiers, among whom is one extremely striking 
man's figure in full armour, has been particularly 
successful. Over this group, in a high tree, an 
eagle may be seen protecting her nest of young 
ones from the attacks of a serpent, possibly alluding 
to the same political events referred to above. 
The charming cherubs, supporting a tablet in the 
upper part of the composition, upon which is en- 
graved a long quotation from Josephus, describing 
the scene depicted, have been renewed, and the 
damaged originals transported to the Museum of 
the Opera. 1 With them is also the original tablet, 
which curiously enough on removal was found to 
be a memorial slab of an earlier date, bearing on 
the reverse side a fine effigy of a cleric. 2 

The last restoration of this design took place 

storia del onperadore L 15, 14. Archivio detto. Libro Nero 
dal 1461-1533 a 182. 

1 All these fragments may still be seen there. 

" Several discoveries of this kind were made by the restorers 
of the floor ; showing that work, by even such great artists as 
Giovanni Pisano, was destroyed, and the marble used again in 
this way. 

57 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

between the years 1869-1878 and, together with 
the Pavement around it, cost 2,156 lire 63 c. ; 




AI.INARI PHOTO.] [DESIGNED BY 

BASTIANO DI FRANCESCO 

XI. DETAIL OF THE FRIEZE OF LIONS 

while that of the friezes, around this and the next 
design, cost another 3,490 lire 12 c. 

Beyond this fine scene we come to another, 
still more remarkable, if not quite so pleasing. 



THE PAVEMENT 

The Massacre of the Innocents (No. 26). 

This, perhaps, is the most striking of all the 
scenes on the Pavement, and as interesting his- 
torically as artistically. The artist who designed it, 
Matteo di Giovanni Bartoli, has thrown into it all 
the force of his fancy and skill. It is extraordinarily 
full of life, and vivid with imagination. The same 
artist executed certainly three, if not four, more 
designs of the same subject, two of them being 
pictures still existing in Siena itself; 1 and it is 
extremely interesting to compare his treatment of 
it in all these three. Authorities differ as to the 
dates of these two paintings, but admittedly there 
was an interval of ten years between them. That 
in S. Agostino, and most probably also the very 
similar painting by the same artist at Naples, 
come in point of date almost immediately sub- 
sequent to this design for the Pavement, and re- 
semble it very closely. At this period all Italy 
was convulsed with horror at the awful Sack and 
Destruction of Otranto, which had occurred on 
the iith of August, i48o. 2 We read that 1,200 
persons were massacred, and that most of the 
children were sold as slaves. The shock to the 

1 In the churches of S. Agostino and of Sta. Maria del 
Concezione dei Servi. The other two are (a) in the Pin- 
acoteca at Naples (No. 31), and (b] in the Public Gallery 
at Aix-en-Provence (No. 138). (See B. Berenson, Central 
Italian Painters. ) 

* Sismondi, Histoire des Republiques Italiennes du Moyen 
Age, vol. iv., chap. 88. 

59 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Christian world was so terrible that the Pope, 
Sixtus IV., in an Encyclical addressed to all the 
cities of Italy, called their attention to the disaster, 
pointed out to them that none of them, however 
remote, was safe, and implored them, setting aside 
their party divisions, to combine in the cause of 
mutual protection against the Moslem. Alfonso, 
Duke of Calabria, son of Ferdinand, Kingof Naples, 
then living as ruler in Siena, was hastily recalled 
to take command of an expedition against the 
common enemy : and it is, I submit, not straining 
a theory too far, to suppose, that Matteo di 
Giovanni may have been directed to design these 
scenes on the Pavement of the Duomo, for the 
Church of S. Agostino, and for the Church of 

o 

Sta. Caterina a Formello at Naples, as an object 
lesson to recall to the public mind, through the 
medium of a Scriptural Tragedy, the horrors to 
be endured at the hands of the unspeakable Turk. 
They are all executed with a force and a suggest- 
iveness, so vivid as to be painful in their intensity. 
The successful results of these three probably in- 
spired the fourth, 1 which is somewhat less ferocious, 
and certainly more graceful and pleasing. 

Unable to use on the Pavement the brilliant 
pigments so lavishly employed in the paintings, 
the artist has introduced, wherever possible, mar- 
bles of many and varied colours ; and when upon 
these multi-coloured materials are super-imposed 

1 Mr. Berenson with, I think, great reason, suggests the view 
that 1471 should be 1491. (Central Italian Painters, Index.) 

60 




2 I 

H 



U 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

most elaborate designs, the whole produces the 
effect of a gorgeous piece of bizarre jewellery. 
Herod sits on a splendid Renaissance throne of 
carved marble, in a colonnade, adorned with panels 1 
of classical scenes. A sportive frieze of marble 
Bacchanals is introduced along the top of the com- 
position, broken by circular windows, from which 
groups of impish children look down complacently 
and even laughingly, on the dreadful slaughter 
below. The armour of Herod and his soldiers 
is of the most magnificent kind, and we may 
notice again the artist's affection for finishing a 
clasp with the head of an animal or a human 
being. 2 (111. XII.) 

It is evident from the style of this work that 
it is by Matteo di Giovanni Bartoli, and his 
authorship has never been questioned, though 
there is no record of any commission or payment 
to him. The date of its execution (1481) is fixed 
by Tizio, 3 and by two records of payments for 
materials used upon it. 4 

1 The reader will find it of considerable interest to examine 
and compare the scenic accessories of this design, with those 
of the pictures mentioned above. It is curiously noticeable 
how many flufti are introduced into the decorations, as if in 
symbolical contrast with the gruesome massacre of the helpless 
human infants beneath. 

2 Compare the girdle of the Samian Sibyl with the knee and 
shoulder caps of the soldiers in this design. 

3 1481. Historia Innocentium pavimento Edis Majoris 
Albertus Aringherius Edituus sterni fecit hoc anno. Tizio, 
Hist. Sen. ad an. 1481. Vol. vi. p. 52. 

4 1481. 4 Giugno. Francesco di Niccolaio e nanni di piero 

62 




AI.INARI PHOTO. 



[DESIGNED nv MATTEO DI GIOVANNI BARTOI.I 



THE PAVEMENT 

We have no record as to who executed the 
very charming frieze of putti and dragons, which 
borders the bottom and the left side of this picture ; 
nor that of greyhounds and fountains, which 
incloses the other sides, and it is not easy to 
suggest any reason why two such different designs 
should have been employed for the same picture. 
They, are evidently designed by different hands, 
and were probably executed like the other friezes 
by the Cathedral workmen mentioned above. 
(111. XIII.) 

The whole work has been apparently restored 
several times ; for we find in the notes of Abate 
Faluschi, 1 that it was restored in 1790 by 
Matteo Pini, after the designs of Carlo Amidei, 
and at this very day some of the worn-out stones 
are being renewed, and the line of drawing re- 
trepanned and stuccoed. 

The third picture in this transept is : 

The Relief of Bethulia by Judith. (Judith, 
cap. xiii., xiv., and xv.) (No. 25.) 

di nanni-deno avere a di iiij di Giugno lire trentaquattro sol 
otto per B a ., quaranta tre di marmi bianchi bigi e gialli misurati 
di piu sorte a b a : quadro - el quale po per lo pavimento de la 
storia deglinnocenti. 

Domenico d'antonio di Lando sensale die avere a di 8 di 
Maggio, L. undici per una balla di pecie navale compramo da 
Lui-per impeciare la storia deglinnocenti si fa nuovamente in 
Duomo. Archivio detto. Libro Giallo delle tre Rose, a 283 
e 292. 

1 Faluschi MS. notes, a. 27. 

63 




o 



< a 

' 



I 

< '' 



8 5 



THE PAVEMENT 

Whether this picture had any political or semi- 
political reference we do not know. The small 
fortress-towns in the Sienese contado were at 
this time continually being relieved and changing 
hands, but we cannot now identify this scene with 
any particular event. It is interesting, though, to 
note that it was planned during the Rectorship of 
Savino di Matteo di Guido Savirio, who was, on 
January 26th, 1480, deposed from his post for 
being one of the " Riformatori." 1 

The notices as to this work are few and vague : 
but we know from Tizio 2 that it was laid down in 
1473, and further that the frieze of " reels " (naspa- 
toio\ surrounding it, was executed by Urbano 
di Pietro da Cortona, Giovanni di Stefano di 
Giovanni, Bartolomeo di Domenico Calabrone 
and Francesco di Bartolomeo (perhaps his son). 3 
It is generally supposed that the design itself was 
the work either of Urbano da Cortona or of 
Matteo di Giovanni Bartoli, and the execution is 
attributed to Antonio Federighi. 4 (111. XIV.) 
However this may be, it is a work full of charm, 
recalling examples of the most poetic period of 

1 Borghesi and Faluschi, MSS. Lists of Operaii. 

2 1473. Historia Judith cum Betulia ab Olopherne obsid- 
eretur in pavimento Ecclesie majoris constrata est. Tizio, 
Hist. Sen., vol. iv., ad an. 

3 1473. Urbano di Pietro Giovanni di Stefano e Bartolomeo 
di Domenico Calabrone e Francesco di Bartolomeo scarpellini 
fecero il naspatoio di marmo intorno ,la storia di Giuditta. 
Archivio detto. Libro delle due Rose, a. 283. 

4 La Guida Artistica, p. 26. 

65 F 




ALINARI PHOTO.] 

XV. DETAIL FROM THE RELIEF OF BETHULIA 



THE PAVEMENT 

Florentine art. As usual in work of this period, 
several episodes of the story are told in various 
parts of the picture. On the extreme right, now 
much injured, and partly obliterated by the Pisani's 
pulpit, we can still trace Holoferries' tent, and the 
gruesome tragedy therein enacted. Above the 
middle of the picture, over the hillside, upon which 
bloom myriad flowers amid purling brooks, comes 
Judith, a figure of extreme grace, followed by her 
maid, who bears on her head a basket, contain- 
ing the tyrant's head. 1 (111. XV.) To the left 
is the towered city of Bethulia, from which issue 
troops of horsemen, intent upon victory in the 
fight, which is depicted in the centre of the com- 
position. Beside the gate of the city, one may 
notice a group of a knight with his squire arrang- 
ing the harness of his horse. (111. XVI.) We may 
also remark the introduction here of birds. In the 
extreme left corner are two parent birds, sitting 
in a bush, guarding their young ones in a nest, 
whilst above Holofernes' tent are perched two 
waiting ravens. 

This work was also restored, or, as Abate 
Faluschi puts it with much truth, "modernized" 
(modernata) by Carlo Amidei and Matteo Pini 
in 1790, so that we cannot now .know how much 
of the original work has perished. It is not un- 
likely that, in any case, it may have been a com- 

1 These two figures recall the work of Francesco di Giorgio. 
Compare pictures by him in the Church of S. Domenico and the 
Siena Academy. 

67 




ALINARI PHOTO.] 

XVI. DETAIL FROM THE RELIEF OF BETHULIA 



THE PAVEMENT 

posite design from the hand of more than one 
artist. It is, however, worth noting that, whereas 
the design last described depends largely for its 
effect on varied colour, this one, the Expulsion of 
Herod, and the other contemporary picture of the 
Story of Jephthah, presently to be described, show 
how much can be done by the use of line alone. 

Ascending a wide step, we come to a work of 
much older and more archaic character, which I 
propose to include in my seventh division. 

7. THE CHOIR AMBULATORY. 

The Story of Joshuas Victory over the Amo rites 
(No. 22), and the Slaughter of the Five Kings. 

This work, with the others beside it on the 
same platform right across the church, was executed 
about the year 1424, during the Rectorship of 
Bartolommeo Cecchi. I have already, in my in- 
troduction, referred to the difficulty in separating 
the work done here by Domenico di Niccolo del 
Coro, from that of Paolo di Martino. Both men 
appear from the documents to have held the post 
of Capo-maestro of the Duomo. Tizio mentions 
distinctly ^ this design as among those executed in 

1 1424. Bartolommeus interea Johannis Cecchi Ex Usinina 
oriundus majoris templi Edituus historiam marmoream ab 
Altare Ansani ad Victoris aram in pavimento majoris Edis 
sterni fecit. In ejus medio e regione majoris Are as scalas 
historia cernitur David cum cantorilms circulo conventis : a dextris 
vero Sanson, precedence Mose ; a sinistris Judas Macabeus cum 
Josue quinque Reges ulciscente : Tizio, Hist. Sen., vol. iv., p. 200. 

6 9 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

1424, and Milanesi in his Document! l repeating 
that date, assures us that it was among works 
to be attributed to Domenico himself: thereby 
pointedly confuting Vasari's assertion, that it and 
those adjoining it were from designs by Duccio. 
On the same page, however, of the Documenti, 2 we 
find a notice, dated 1426, of payment to a paper 
dealer, named Domenico di Francesco, for ten 
squares of "fogli reagli" used by " Paolo nostro" 
for a design for the " storiadi Giesue" and Milanesi 
himself in his Discorso sulla Storia ArtisticaSenese* 
contradicts his former statement, attributes this 
design and that of Samson (No. 14) in the opposite 
aisle of the Choir, also hitherto given by him to 
Domenico, to Paolo, and dates them both two years 
later than in his previous assertion. 

It is an interesting picture, though at present 
sadly in need of judicious restoration. The greater 
part of it is occupied by the battle scene, but up 
in the top left-hand corner we see the bodies of 
the Five Kings hung up to five stakes, and below 
them a yawning cavern. Some of the figures are 
expressed with considerable force, and the fifteenth- 
century armour of the soldiers is most quaint and 
curious. 



1 Mil. Doc., vol. i., p. 178, and vol. ii., p. 238. 

2 1426. Domenico di Francesco, cartaio de 1 avere -per x qua- 
derni di fogli reagli, ebe Pauolo nostro per la disegniatura de la 
storia di Giesue. Archivio detto. Memoriale di Antonio di 
Savio, Camarlingo, dal 1426 al 1427, a. 39. 

3 Sulla Storia delf Arte Toscana, Scritti Van', p. 84. 

70 



THE PAVEMENT 

The work here, and that of the story of Samson 
above referred to, do resemble each other, and 
have not much in common with the known work 
of Domenico del Coro. I think we may, therefore, 
fairly consider them as from Paolo's designs ; and 
supposing that these artists worked in collaboration 
on the whole scheme of this platform, that, when 
Tizio spoke of these designs, he described a project 
not completely carried out until two years later. 

On either side of the main picture are single 
figures of Joshua and Solomon (Nos. 23 and 24). 
The first of these Milanesi, in his Discorso? gives 
unhesitatingly to Paolo di Martino, with the same 
date as the before-mentioned larger design. But 
of the figure of Solomon, now more than half con- 
cealed under the marble balustrade of the altar of 
S. Ansano, a mention exists in a document in the 
Archivio dell' Opera, dated loth of August, I447- 2 
This was during the Rectorship of Giovanni di 
Pietro Ghezzi (Borghesi), who held the post from 
1437 to 1448, 3 and we find a notice dated June, 
I444, 4 which may refer to this very work, although 
it is not mentioned specifically. It is a permission 

1 P. 84. 

2 Archivio detto. Lib. Delib. ad annum. E.V. a 89 (on the 
back). 

3 Borghesi and Faluschi MSS. Lists of Qperaii. 

4 1444. Giugnol Miss: Poperaio et consiglieri convocati - 
deliberarono che miss : Gio. (Borghesi) operaio che lui possa et 
facei fare uno pavimento in Duomb verso Santo Sano come 
allui parra, e piacera. Archivio detto. Libro E. 5. Delib : a 76 
(on the back). 

71 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

to the Rector to fill up this portion of the Pavement 
with such a design, as may seem to him suitable 
and pleasing. 1 

The whole platform, or step, upon which all these 
designs are inlaid had been bordered, along the 
top and bottom, by a delightful frieze of putti, 
executed in 1423, by Agostino di Niccolo of Siena, 2 
and Bastiano di Corso of Florence. 3 Of the former 
artist we know but little, but of the work of the 
latter, in company with his son Corso, on the 
pavement before the Cathedral doors, we find 
several notices, to which I have referred already. 4 
A notice, dated 25th March, 1447^ speaks of other 

1 The following notice, perhaps, also refers to the same work : 
1448. 6. Agosto. Similmente rimisero nel decto Miss: 
Poperaio che lui possa fare nella chiesa cathedrale lo spazo che 
e alato al coro di verso la Cappella di S. Bastiano di marmo con 
quegli intagli, compassi, figure et ornamenti che li parra per 
honore di Dio et exaltatione dela decta chiesa. Archivio detto. 
Libro detto. a 98 (on the back). 

- Archivio detto. Libro di Documenti Artistici, No. 46. 

3 1423, di Dicembre. Bastiano di Chorso, maestro di pietra 
da Firenze s'alocho a di XVII di Deciembre di fare braccia 
cinquanta, o per quello he (che) a me para, del fregio, il quale 
si die fare lo spazo nel Duomo a pie le schalelle de 1'atare 
magiore : et io gli deba dare marmo e chola e ogni altra chosa ; 
e lui lavoralo a ogni sua spesa. E die avere del braccio steso, 
lire cinque, sol : quindici e dielo fare presto sanza metare in 
mezo altro lavorio. Archivio detto. Memoriale di messere 
Bartolommeo Cecchi, operaio del Duomo dal 1423 al 1427 a 2. 

4 Archivio detto. Libro E. IV. Memorie a 24, and Libro 
E.V. a 108 e no (on the back). 

' 1447, 25 Marzo. Maestro Bastiano di Chorso, et Chorso 
suo figliuolo, dieno avere per insino questo di 25 di Marzo: 

72 



THE PAVEMENT 

frieze-work done by father and son, " sotto la 
tribuna di verso Paltare di Santa Chaterina" This 
work appears to have perished, or been superseded, 
unless, as is by no means impossible or improb- 
able, we may attribute to him the frieze round the 
Massacre of the Innocents described above, the 
authors of which are unknown and unidentified. 

Agostino and Bastiano's frieze is a very graceful 
one, but it would seem, judging from the dates of 
the documents, as if the latter artist had succeeded 
the former in the work : for the first document 
speaks of payment made to Agostino up to 
December 3Oth, 1423, whereas both those com- 
missioning Bastiano are dated the same month, 
with no allusion to previous or contemporary em- 
ployment of any other artist. 

Three more steps bring us to the passage which 
runs round behind the altar. Here originally was 
some of the oldest work, but to all appearance 
now it would seem to be almost the most modern. 
In five circles we find the five Cardinal Virtues, 
the first of whom is 

Fortitude (No. 21). 
On this spot, as I have already said in my first 

per brae : trenta quattro di porporele, lire tre sol : 2 : monta 
lire CXXVIII. Per brae : trenzette di rochetti, per lire tre el 
braccio : monta lire CVIII. Per brae : sette di fogliami, per 
lire quatro el bracio : monta lire XXVIII. el quale tuto lavoro 
e posto e murato sotto la tribuna di verso 1'altare di Santa 
Chaterina. Archivio detto. Libro Verde dal 1441 al 1457 a 
184 (on the back). 

73 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

chapter. Marchesse d'Adamo 1 and his companions, 
the Comacene sculptors at work in Siena in 1406, 
are generally supposed to have executed the earliest 
figure-subject on the Pavement, about which we 
now possess authoritative information. There is 
nothing, however, to show their work. The figure 
is imposing and dignified in composition, but the 
workmanship on it is poor and somewhat paltry. 

Of the four other Virtues, Justice, Christian 
Piety, Prudence, and Temperance (Nos. 20, 19, 18, 
and 17), there is little definite to be said. Padre 
Micheli 2 following Milanesi 3 gives 1406 as the 
possible date of the two first, 1380 as that of the 
other two ; but there is nothing in their present 
condition to prove either one date or the other. 
The only thing that may be noticed is that the 
restoration of Justice and Prudence shows more 
vigour of conception and boldness of line, with far 
more satisfactory results than have been shown in 
the case of Fortitude and Temperance. Fortitude, 
we know, was restored in 1839, and Temperance 
perhaps at the same time. Christian Piety is half 
covered by the great lectern, and so obliterated 
by the feet of readers and singers as to be now 

1 (1406) 13 Marzo. Marchesse d' Adamo e compan^ni maesstri 
di pietra da Como. - E dieno avere a di XIII. di Marzo lire 
centoquaranta e quali li debiamo dare per nna rotta (ruota) 
anno fatto murare nello spazzo contra a la sagrestia. Archivio 
detto. Bastardello No. 2. del 1405 a 65. Mil. Doc., vol. i., 
p. 177. 

2 // Pavimento del Duomo and La Guida Artistica, p. 26. 

3 Discorso sulla Storica Artistica Senese, p. 84. 

74 



THE PAVEMENT 

almost indistinguishable. The frieze of ladders 
(scaglioni) and thorns (spint), surrounding these 
works, is said to have been executed in I4O6. 1 

Descending again three steps corresponding to 
those on the opposite side of the church we come 
to the design of 

Samson slaying the Philistines with the jawbone 
of an ass (No. 14). 

alluded to above. The workmanship and style of 
this picture certainly resembles that of the Joshua 
and the Five Kings on the north side, but it is a 
finer and a grander piece of work. The grouping 
is bolder and more forcible. Samson, a giant 
figure, is administering chastisement to a Philistine 
in the manner of a schoolmaster to a naughty boy. 
He holds aloft, not merely the jawbone of an ass, 
but the whole skull. Some of his opponents lie 
slaughtered on the ground, and a crowd of them 
cowers away in terror, to the right of the. com- 
position. (111. XX.) 

This design, as we have said before, is mentioned 
by Tizio 2 among those projected in 1424, and was 
probably executed by Paolo di Martino in 1426. 
On either side of it are the single figures of Moses 
(No. 16) andyWdtf Maccabeus (No. 15). Milanesi 
in his Discorso* attributes the figure of Moses, like 
that of Joshua (No. 23), to Paolo di Martino in 
1426, while that of Judas Maccabeus, now hidden 

1 La Guida Artistica, p. 26. 

2 Tizio, Hist. Sen., vol. iv., p. 200. 3 P. 84. 

75 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

almost entirely by the balustrade of the altar of 
the Blessed Sacrament, and also recorded by Tizio 
(in the notice already more than once referred to), 
Padre Micheli 1 supposes, and there is no evidence 
to contradict him, to have been the work of Do- 
menico del Coro in 1424. 

Before descending the step to the South Tran- 
sept, I would wish to draw the reader's attention 
to the fact, that this step does not run parallel with 
the steps above it, and that the platform is narrower 
at this end than at the other. Consequently, the 
design of Samson and those in the transept, now 
to be described, are all more or less irregular in 
shape. Whether this is due to some structural 
defect in the original building, or to some in- 
equality in the foundation, it is impossible now 
to say. 

8. THE SOUTH TRANSEPT. 

This transept is complicated in its general plan 
by the irregularity above referred to. It contains 
two pictures to correspond to the one (the Story 
of Judith] on the opposite side of the church, and 
is further broken up by varied designs, of different 
sizes, before what was once the Porta del Perdono, 
and is now the Cappella del Voto. 

The first picture, that we come to, is very re- 
markable, especially since it is the only one which 
is neither biblical, symbolical, nor heraldic. It 
professes to be a portrait of the 

1 // Pavimento del Duomo and La Guida Artistica, p. 25. 

7 6 



THE PAVEMENT 

Emperor Sigismund (No. 13), 
who in 1433 was a visitor for some months to the 
city. (111. XXI.) 

Confusion has arisen among Sienese writers as 
to the identity of this portrait, and some have 
said that it represents the Emperor Charles IV. 
This probably arose from the fact, which is diffi- 
cult now to explain, that Tizio, 1 under date 1424, 
after describing, as we have seen, the above-men- 
tioned designs, goes on to say that " in the time 
immediately following, to the right, by the iron 
grating, a Portrait of the Emperor was laid down 
on the pavement ; and not much later the Story 
of Absalom hanging by his hair to the oak, under 
the direction of the same Operaio." With the 
Story of Absalom I will deal presently, but Tizto 
must have made a very grave mistake here in 
dates; since we have two notices' 2 proving that 

1 1424. ... eodemque succedente tempore a destris, citra 
ferreas crates, Imperatoris Imago inpavimento est locata, nee non 
demum Absalonis Historia cesarie ad quercum pendentis, cooper- 
ante eodem Edituo et hisdem lapidum cesoribus. Tizio, Hist. 
Sen., vol. iv., p. 200. 

2 1434, 30 Ottobre. Anco deliberarono, che conciosiaco- 
sache uno maestro Domenicho dipentore habbi certa statua 
ossivero disegnio, il quale e simile alia faccia de la Cesarea 
maesta ; et assai farebbe honore averlo nella mani della decta 
opera ; potendosi avere condecente prezzo, che al dto Camar- 
lengo sia lecito senza suo pregivditio, o danno et co' denari de la 
decta opera spendervi fmo alia quantita di L. 1 6. Archivio detto. 
Delib. E. 5, a. 4 (on the back). 

Domenico di Bartolo dipentore de' avere lire sedici, i quagli 
sono per uno disegnio fecie per deliberazione di messer Bartolo- 

77 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Domenico di Bartolo di Ghezzo d'Asciano was 
the designer of this work in 1434, for which he 
received 16 lire ; whilst another notice, 1 dated 
December 2nd in the same year, records the 
payment of 3 lire 10 soldi to a workman named 
Giacomo d' Antonio for assistance in executing it. 
As regards the Operaio at this period some 
difficulty arises, since Padre Micheli asserts that 
Bartolomeo Cecchi only held the post up to 1430. 
From the Borghesi and the Faluschi MS. lists, 2 
however, we find that Cecchi (Bartolommeo di 
Gio. di Cecco) was still in office on October 25th, 
1434, but was apparently compelled to resign on 
account of his having married a certain Corsa, 
and had children by her. 3 We read further that 
he was succeeded, 1434-5, by Giacomo della 
Quercia, who held the post until his death on 
February 8th, I438. 4 From the second of the 

meio de lo Imperatore per una storiasi fain Duomo. Archivio 
detto. Memoriale del Camarlingo Gio : Matteio di Salvi. ad 
annum a. IT,. 

1 1434, 2 di Decembre. Le spese dell' Uopara Santa Maria 
di Duomo. E die dare a di ij di Dicembre lire tre, soldi dieci 
pagamo a Jacomo d'Antonio manovale per vii huopare aito 
quando si muro lo spazzo de 1'Imperatore. Archivio detto. 
Libro detto, a 15 (on the back) No. 9. 

2 Borghesi and Faluschi MSS. Lists of Operaii. It appears 
from these curious side-lights that the Operaio of the Duomo was 
bound by the regulations of the period to be a celibate, or at 
least to have no children ; but we learn, from further study of 
them, that the regulations varied considerably from time to time. 

3 Cf. Aldobrandini Chronicle. 

1 Delib. del Consistoro ad annum. 

78 







LOMBARIJI 1'HOTO.] [BY PIETRO DEL M1NELLA (?) 

XVII. THE STORY OF ABSALOM (No. 12) 



79 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

notices above referred to we gather, therefore, 
that the work was certainly ordered by Bartolomeo 
Cecchi, even if, as is possible, it was completed 
under the direction of his successor. 

The Emperor, crowned and sceptre in hand, sits 
on a splendid throne, under a marble canopy, hung 
with garlands. Four counsellors sit beside him, 
two on each hand ; and two tall pages carry his 
orb and sword. It is worth noting, that this design 
appears to have early required restoration, because 
we read in a notice quoted above, 1 under date 
1485, of black marble being brought from Chas- 
ciano, among other things, " raconciare la storia 
del onperadore" At the latest restoration (1869-78) 
a sum of 616 lire 49 c. was expended on it. 

Beside this design, as I have remarked above, 
is the very striking picture of 

Absalom hanging by his hair (No 12). 

(111. XVII.). No design on the Pavement attracts 
so much attention as this. The bold, vigorous 
outlines of the white figures set against the black 
marble background, the vivid and forcible corn-- 
position of the picture, and the remarkably de- 
corative foliage of the two trees, almost Japanese 
in character, from one of which Absalom is hang- 
ing, arrest the eye and the attention of even the 
most casual visitor. We find a notice in the 
Archivio dell' Opera, 2 stating that it was com- 

1 Archivio detto. Libro Nero dal 1461-1533 a 18?. 

2 Archivio detto. Libro Verde dal 1441-57. 

80 



THE PAVEMENT 

menced after the nth of July, 1447, during the 
Rectorship of Giovanni Borghesi, and while Pietro 
di Tommaso Minella was Capo-maestro. 

The design of it is generally attributed to 
Minella himself, and from the high merit of its 
conception and composition this is very probable, 
but there are no records to prove more than that 
he superintended its execution. Tizio 1 includes 
it in the list of works to which he gives the date 
1424, but this, as I have already pointed out, is an 
obvious mistake. 

Below these two designs we come to another 
fine large picture, similar to those in the North 
Transept. It represents 

The Story of Jephthatis Victory, and the Sacrifice 
of his Daughter (No. 1 1). 

The greater part of the composition is taken up 
with the Fight and Victory ; and the expression 
of violent action on the part of the combatants is 
wonderfully forcible. To the left Jephthah, on his 
charger, a crown on his head, and clothed like a 
Roman emperor, gives orders to his men. Near 
him we notice a charming group of two young men 
conversing, one of whom, a negro, stands out from 
the picture with startling vividness. (111. XXIII.). 
Above, in the background, Jephthah's daughter is 
seen coming out of the city gates, with a joyous 
crowd of maiden companions, to greet her vic- 

1 Tizio, Hist. Sen., vol. iv., p. 200. 

8l G 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

torious father ; while, still farther into the top left- 
hand corner, we may see the unhappy father, in a 
tiny temple, sacrificing- his daughter, in fulfilment 
of his rash vow Of this work we find two notices 
in the Archives, 1 the first, dealing with advances 
made on two occasions to the artist, and the other, 
recording payment for the complete work. The 
artist employed upon it was Bastiano di Francesco 
di Sano, of whom we have already spoken, and he 
appears in this case to have been both designer 
and executant. The work seems to have been 
commenced either late in 1481 or at the beginning 
of 1482, but not finished until the end of 1484 or 
early in 1485. Not that the artist was idle, for, as 
we have seen, he had work to do elsewhere on the 
Pavement in the interval, besides various sculpt- 
ures commissioned by the cathedral authorities. 2 
He received for it in all a sum of 2,555 lire. Its 

1 1481-2, 18 Gennaio. Bastiano di Francesco scharpellino 
die dare a di xviii di giennaio L ciento - contanti in sua manoli 
quali se gli prestano per parte de la storia e pavimento attolto 
affare in duomo di marmo rincontro al crocifisso. - 

e die dare a di vi Aprile 1482 L. ottanta per parte del quadro 
overo pavimento come sopra. Archivio detto. Libro Giallo 
de' tre Rose a 348. 

1484-5. 12 Gennaio. Bastiano di Francesco scharpellino et 
dipentore die avere a di xii Giennaio lire duo-milatrecientoset- 
tantacinque sol., sonno per la storia overo pavimento del Re 
Jefte a fatta in Duomo dinanzi alPaltare del Crocifisso. Archivio 
detto. Libro Rosso d'un Leone a 107 (on the back). 

2 1484. Bastiano predetto (di franco) fa il festone, e i sera- 
fini intorno al razo, o raggio della Tribuna. Archivio detto. 
Libro d'un Lione a 140. 

82 



THE PAVEMENT 

restoration in 1869-78 cost 2,664 n * re 8 c - 
XXIII.) 

Below this design, the plan of the floor is very 
much broken up. The reader must, however, bear 
in mind that up to the year 1661, when Pope 
Alexander VII. (Fabio Chigi) began to build the 
Cappella della Madonna del Voto, to contain the 
famous wonder-working picture of the Madonna, 
Protectress of Siena, this portion of the Pavement 
lay before the Porta del Perdono, to which I have 
made frequent reference at the commencement of 
this chapter. This Porta del Perdono must have 
been a sort of Porta Sacra, opened only in solemn 
state in the years of Jubilee. 1 Fragments of it still 
exist, and may be seen built into the outer wall of 
the bay, next to the above-mentioned Chapel ; and 
the inscription, quoted in the note, is now to be found 
over the left hand doorway of the Western facade. 
There are many notices still to be found dealing 
with this important entrance. Several, to which 
we have referred already, dealt with the adorn- 
ment of the wide step or platform, that apparently 
led to it from the outside. All this has now 
perished. Inside, however, the floor has fared 
better, and the beautiful painting by Maestro 

1 From a MS. dated 1625 in the Archivio Chisiano in Rome. 
See Faluschi MSS., p. 48. 

" La porta sinistra e quale del Perdono, che stava serrata pel 
" Giubileo, poi solamente si apriva, e e scritto sopra. 
" Annus centenus Romae semper est jubilenus. 
" Crimina laxantur cui poenitet ista donantur. 
" Haec declaravit Bonifatius et roboravit." 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Gregorio (1423), which hung above an altar 1 once 
erected over this door, and belonging to the 
Tolomei family, still exists in the Museum of the 
Opera del Duomo. It was, no doubt, the fact 
that long periods of time passed between each suc- 
cessive opening of this door, which gave Antonio 
di Federigo, or Federighi, the idea of placing 
before it his beautiful design of the 

Seven Ages in the L ife of Man . Infancy, Ch ildhood, 
Adolescence, Youth, Manhood, Age, and De- 
crepitude (No. 6). 

All seven are treated with a naivete" and grace 
impossble to surpass. (111. XVIII.) Not only the 
figures themselves, but also their accessories ; the 
budding blossoms, the over-blown flowers, and the 

o * 

handsome classical tomb to which " Decrepitas" is 
tottering, show a taste and feeling beyond descrip- 
tion. Federighi, we read, designed and executed 
this delightful work in I475, 2 and, at about the 
same date, the friezes of stags, and perhaps the 
beautiful lily (111. XXIV.), candlestick (111. XXII.) 
and geometrical pattern, in the angle formed by the 
Seven Ages with the Cupola designs, were also laid 

1 From an old description of the Duomo among the notes of 
Abate Faluschi, pp. 7 and 1 1 (on the back). 

1475. Aprile 24. E a di 24 d'Aprile, 1475 ^bre diciotto 
di pecie si die a maestro Antonio capomaestro di buttiga nostra 
per inpeciare la storia del 1'ettade. Archivio detto. Libro delle 
due Rose a 385, 

1476. Interea Albertus Aringhierius Edituus etates septem 
hominum pavimento Edis majoris ad portam Indulgentie intus 
sterni fecit. Tizio, Hist, Sen., vol. vi. 4. 

84 




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PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

down; but we cannot be sure whether theyare by the 
same master or not. All that we do know for certain 
about themisdrawn from twonotices/recordingpay. 
ments to a certain Bartolino of Massa da Carrarafor 
marble for work in the Duomo, among which the 
" frieze of stags " (frcgio del cervio], and a frieze at 
the Porta del Perdono are especially mentioned. 

The work visible here now is wholly a restora- 
tion ; but Federighi's Seven Ages may be seen 
nearly complete in the Museum of the Opera, to- 
gether with part of the frieze of stags. Fragments 
of the other friezes and borders are also to be 
found, laid down outside the north aisle of the 
Cathedral, in the little courtyard between it and 
the present Palace of the Archbishop. 

Federighi's work, when removed (1869-1878), 
was replaced by the fine copy, which we now see, 
executed by Leopoldo Maccari and Giuseppe 
Radicchi. The cost of restoration, at this date, 
of the entire angle amounted to 22,254 nre 2 6 c. 

There is no record of any early work ever hav- 

1 1475. Bartalino di Massa da Chararra die avere a di v di 
Settembre 1475 libre cento vinti - sonno per una colonna di 
libre quatro (cento) quaranta due per L 40 - e per due cornici 
L 40 - le quali avemo per finire la cappella di sto ansano - e L 
40 per pezi - di marmo per la fare elfregio del cervio per lo spazzo 
de la porta delperdotioz. soldi xx P - montano L cxx. Archivio 
detto. Libro detto. dal 1466 al 1476 a 398. 

1496 9 Settembre. Bartolino da Massa da Carrara die avere 
L ciento - trenta - sonno per cavatura degli infrascritti marmi 
ci anno cavati alia marmiera nostra di Gallena cioe in prima. 

Omissis - sei pezzi di fregio per lo spazo dela porta del per- 
dono. Archivio detto. Libro Giallo delle tre Rose a. 57. 

86 



THE PAVEMENT 

ing existed between this design and the destroyed 
Porta, which probably stood nearly on the same 
spot as the doorway of the present Cappella del 
Voto. Perhaps the erection of this newer arch- 
way created a wider space. However this may 
have been, designs for the four Theological Virtues, 
Religion, Faith, Hope, and Charity were made by 
Carlo Amidei, and executed here by Matteo Pini 1 in 
1 780. These designs were not admired, and, more- 
over, did not stand the wear of time as the older 
work had done. They were, therefore, removed 
in 1870, and replaced by entirely 'new designs, 
made by Professor Alessandro Franchi, and exe- 
cuted, under his direction, by Leopoldo Maccari. 

Before commencing the description of the last 
two sections of the Pavement, I must remind my 
reader once more, that, after a great part of it had 
been laid down, an important radical change took 
place in the interior arrangements of the Duomo. 

Up to the commencement of the sixteenth cen- 
tury the great High Altar, glorified by Duccio's 
grand Maesta, stood in the centre of the Cathedral, 
under the Cupola. This part, therefore, of the 
floor was not decorated. But, on the other hand, 
that above the steps, where the Choir and Altar 
now are, was so adorned. 

By the advice of Baldassare Peruzzi, Capo- 
maestro in 1532, the whole arrangement was 
changed. In accordance with his plans, and under 

1 See Libri dell' Opera, Giornale Cecconi. G. Anno, 1780, 
p. 77. Also La Guida Artistica, p. 24. 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

his direction, Choir and Altar were moved further 
east, and placed in the position that theynowoccupy. 
Of the original floor decorations, then, all that 
now remain in situ are the designs in the Choir 
Ambulatory above-mentioned, and Domenico del 
Core's work, to be described shortly. Fragments of 
the older work, removed to make way for the altera- 
tions, still exist ; and, until 1 878, were used to fill up 
three of the hexagons under the Cupola. At that 
date, as we shall presently see, they were finally re- 
moved to the Museum of the Opera, and replaced 
by modern work of an entirely different character. 

Let us now proceed eastwards and examine 

9. THE CHOIR AND ALTAR-STEPS. 

Before the lowest step of the High Altar, we 
find one large design, and on either side of it seven 
small ones ; the whole being inclosed by a long 
processional frieze. 

The principal design represents 

Abrahams Sacrifice (No. 56). 
The whole story is told in different parts of 
the picture, culminating in the central group of 
the Sacrifice itself. The smaller designs repre- 
sent the following subjects. 

On the right of the Altar : 

1. Elisha raising the son of the Shunammite. 

2. A prophet zvith an open book before him. 

3. Eve on her knees. 



THE PAVEMENT 

4. A woman, holding in her hand an open book. 

5. Another woman, with a mirror, representing 
Prudence. 

6. The Sacrifice of Melchisedcc. 

7. A seated woman, wi/k a child. 

On the left : 

r . The old Tobit, with his son, Tobias > and the 
Angel Raphael. At their feet a dog. 

2. A woman, representing Charity. 

3. Adam kneeling. 

4. A prophet, gazing up to Heaven. 

5. Another woman, seated, holding a book in her 
hand. 

6. The Sacrifice of Abel. 

7. Another woman, seated, with a child. 

A great procession runs all round these, com- 
posed of men and women of all ages, shown in 
half-length, representing 

The Children of Israel seeking the Promised Land. 

All these designs were the work of Domenico 
di Jacopo di Pace Beccafumi, called II Mecharino, 
and we read in Alfonso Landi's DescrizionedelPavi- 
mento and in the notes of Abate Faluschi * that they 
were executed between the years 1544 and 1546. 
The writers refer to (as their authority) the Libro 
Giallo dell' Assunta of the Cathedral Archives, and 
state that the artist received 8,004 lire 19 c. for his 

1 Descrizione del Pavimento, by Alfonso Landi : Delia Valle, 
Lettere Senesi, vol. iii. Faluschi MSS., p. 23. Archivio detto. 
Libro Giallo dell' Assunta a 42, 89 e 155. 

89 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

work. The subjects chosen fitly complete the 
general scheme of the floor, surrounding, as they do, 
the Altar, with symbolical imagery from the Old 
Testament. The repentant Adam and Eve, the 
three Typical Sacrifices, Prophets, Virtues, the 
Guardian Angel, and around the whole a host of 
believers hastening to the Promised Land. Some of 
the drawing is very beautiful and extremely decor- 
ative, notably the frieze. The beautiful figure of 
Eve, indeed, has been even attributed to Giovanni 
Antonio Bazzi (// Sodoma), who is known to have 
received a commission to make at least one design 
for this floor. 1 This, however, is wholly uncertain, 
and cannot now be verified. The workmen em- 
ployed here, and the sums they received respect- 
ively, we learn from the above sources and from 
Milanesi.' 2 They were Bernardino di Giacomo, 
who received for his labour 475 scudi, and Pelle- 
grino di Pietro, 151 sc., i. 4. These men were 
probably masons in the regular employ of the 

1 1527, 31 Agosto. M. Giovant . detto el sodoma dipentore 
de dare a di xxxi d' agosto lire quatordici per prezo del disegnio 
aveva fatto per la storia di. . . . Archivio detto. Libro di tre 
Angeli dal 1521 al 1529 a 465. Mil. MS. notes, p. 33. 

- Milanesi Discorso sulla Storia Artistica Senese. Archivio 
detto. Libro Giallo dell' Assunta a 44 e a 177. Landi and 
Faluschi differ slightly as to details and sums of money, but 
agree in the general facts. I have preferred to take Landi's 
version, as I am inclined to think that Faluschi's information is 
in the main drawn from the earlier writer ; who states that 
whereas Bernardino di Jacomo executed the Sacrifice of 
Abraham and the smaller stories, Pellegrino di Pietro did the 
frieze, which happens to be the finer work. 

9 



THE PAVEMENT 

Cathedral, for Bernardino, at least, seems to have 
been employed on all the work done at this time. 
Descending three steps we come to Domenico 
del Coro's design of David, to which we have had 
occasion to refer already more than once. 

David as King and Psalmist, and David and 
Goliath. 

In a circular panel, David, as King, sits on a 
throne with a sort of zither on his knee, while, 
with his right hand, he points to an open book of 
Psalms, propped upon a lectern by his side. Around 
him stand four courtiers holding each a primitive 
musical instrument : a small organ, a tambourine, 
a mandoline, and a viol. The whole picture is 
surrounded by a graceful cornice of leaves. On 
either side of the central picture, in a lozenge- 
shaped space, is a single figure ; on the one side 
is the youth David slinging his stone, and upon 
the other the giant Goliath falling backwards, 
It is curious that Goliath has a hole in his fore- 
head, although the stone has not reached him ; 
while, at the same time, the stone is both still 
in David's sling and in the air above Goliath. 
The figures in the central composition are fine, 
but much altered by restoration. Those of 
David and Goliath are more original, and have 
probably suffered less. These designs are un- 
doubtedly the work of Domenico del Coro, 
executed during the Rectorship of Bartolommeo 
Cecchi ; and the cornice and frieze work around 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

them is that of Agostino da Niccolo, for we read 
special notice of this fact in a memorandum of 
payment to the latter, dated June 6th, 1423.* 

Below another step we come to the largest and 
most pretentious of Beccafumi's designs. 

Moses Ascent of Mount Sinai, his Receipt of the 
Tables of the Law, and the Idolatry of t/ie 
Children of Israel (No. 52). (111. XXV.) 

The story is told in six parts, combined into one 
large picture. Above, in the centre, Moses kneels 
on the mountain top (a). The light of Heaven 
streams over him, and he receives the Tables of 
the Law into his outstretched hands. Below in 
the centre he lifts the Tables over his head, to 
dash them to pieces on the ground (<F). In the 
upper /6//-hand corner, the Elders of Israel are 
seen persuading Aaron, who points to Moses on 
the mountain, to make the Golden Calf(j3): in 
the lower, we see him casting their gold and jewels 
into the fire to make it (6) In the lower right- 
hand corner the Israelites are worshipping the 
Calf (n), while above they are smitten with plague 
and dying in agony (y). This work appears to have 
been originally commissioned by a certain Antonio 

1 1423. 4 Giugno. E 6 fatte sette-ciento mandorle, a ragione 
di vinte lire el centonaio : e piu feci ventitre braccia e mezzo 
di braccia alia distesa di marmo rosso digrossato come viene di 
petriera, del quale adoparo maestro Domenicho nella storia derre 
(del re) Davitte. Archivio detto. Libro di Document! Artistici, 
No. 46. 

92 



THE PAVEMENT 

d'Agostino del Vescovo, then Rector (i 524) ; l but, 
as we read from an inscription let into the beautiful 
frieze that surrounds it, it was completed under 
the direction of his successor, Francesco di Carlo 
Tolomei. Beccafumi received on the 3Oth of 
August, 1531, i2oscudi for these designs, 2 accord- 
ing to a valuation made for Tolomei by Baldassare 
Peruzzi himself; 3 which suggests the idea that 
these two great artists may have together planned 
the new arrangements of the Choir, and a scheme 
of decoration to adorn it, when complete. From 
Landi and Faluschi we learn that the workmen 
here employed 4 were the same Bernardino di 
Giacomo, who now received for his work 969 scudi 
13 : Giacomo di Pietro Gallo, 133 sc. 6.8 ; Barto- 
lommeo di Pietro Gallo, 41 sc. ; and Giovanni 
d' Antonio Marinelli, called i/ Mugnaino, 486 sc. 
To these Milanesi adds two more, not mentioned 
by either of the above authorities : Niccolo Filippi 
and Cristofano di Carbone. 5 

1 Operaiofrom 1524-1529. See Faluschi MS. Lists of Operaii. 

' The large original cartoons, preserved by the Spannoechi 
family up to August 3ist, 1801, were at that date generously 
presented by them to the Picture Gallery of the Accademia delle 
Belle Arti in Siena, where they may still be seen. They have 
suffered sadly from time and damp, but they show the artist's 
skill as a draughtsman far better than the reproductions on the 
Pavement, as it now exists. 

3 From Landi we learn that Baldassare's stipend while Capo- 
maestro was 30 scudi per annum. 

4 Archivio detto. Libro Giallo dell' Assunta a 5, 12, 76, 79, 
84 e 1 08. 

' Discorso sulla Storia Artistica Senese, p. 87. 

93 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Immediately below these scenes a long narrow 
design, also by Beccafumi, shows 

Moses striking the Rock to bring water for the 
thirsting Israelites (No. 51). 

This is by far the most pleasing and successful 
of Beccafumi's works. We can see, from its very 
simplicity, how much its charm depends upon 
sheer skill of drawing. This work was executed 
in I525, 1 but we do not find any record as to the 
amount paid to him for it, or the workmen 
employed upon it. Probably they were the 
same as had carried out his previous designs.' 2 
These scenes by Beccafumi provoked the most 
extravagant admiration and applause from the 
writers of the seventeenth, eighteenth and early 
nineteenth centuries; and as tours de force, and 
specimens of a new kind of work, they are certainly 
remarkable. They do not, however, succeed in 
provoking that feeling of pleasure and charm, that 
one experiences when studying the older and 
simpler productions. 

And now we come to the last section, and some 
of the latest work. 

IO. UNDER THE CUPOLA. 

This vast hexagonal space is divided into seven 
hexagons and six lozenges. They all now contain 

1 Archivio detto. Libro di tre Angeli. Debit e Credit a 341. 
- The cartoon for this scene also still exists in the Accademia 
delle Belle Arti. 

94 






THE PAVEMENT 

scenes from the Story of Elijah, completing what 
probably was Beccafumi's original design. That 
that artist did prepare designs for four of the 
hexagons, for two of the lozenges and for a frieze, 
we have abundant evidence, for we have no less 
than five notices, 1 between the nth of March, 
1518-19, and the i8th of June, 1524, in the 
books of the Opera, of payment to him, not only 
for his labour, but also for the paper used for his 

1 1518-19. ii di Marzo. Domenicho di Jachomo di 
Pacie dipentore de' dare a di xi di Marzo lire quaranta tre, soldi 
dieci, ebe contanti in ducati sei d' oro, li quali se li devono 
per parte del disengnio e chartone a fatto della storia che va in 
Duomo sotto la pupola (cupola). 

1520. 3 di Novembre. E a di iii di Novembre, 1520, lire 
setantaebe conntanti - - se li danno per chonto delle storie 
dipegnie. Archivio detto. Libro Verde di 2 Agnoli dal 1511 
al 1520 a 477. 

1521. 3 di Aprile. Giovanni d'Alixandro cartaio de'avere 

fino a questo di iii Aprile 1521 lire 39 sonno e per fogli reali 

date a Mecharino per le storie e fogli comuni. Archivio e 
Libro detto a 411. 

1521. 6 di Settembre. Domenico di Jacomo di Pacie 
dipentore de' avere fino a questo di vi di Settembre lire dugiento 
vintiquattro (Due. trentadue ?) sonno per sue fadighe d' avere 
lui disegniattoci, e dipintoci tre storie d'Elia e del re Agabe in 
tre tondi sotto la pupola di Duomo. Archivio detto. Libro 
di tre Agnoli a 94 e a 147. 

1524. 1 8 di Giugno. Domenicho di Jachomo di Pacie 
dipentore de' avere fino a questo di xviii di Giugno 1524 lire 
otantaquatro, che sonno per le sue fadige (sic] d' avere disegniata 
e dipenta (sic) 1' ultimo tondo de la storia de re Agabe e d'Elia 
quando vanno a fare sacrifizio, e due mandorle con certe figure, 
e disegniato uno fregio. Archivio e Libro detti dal 1521 al 
1529 a 147. 

95 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

cartoons. It is also to be noted that the com- 
mission for this work was given him earlier than 
that of any of the other works above described. 
Upon these grounds, Professor Luigi Mussini, 
writing on the Pavement, 1 supposes that they 
were executed in 1517, and likens them to Pin- 
turicchio's work of eleven years before. A recent 
writer in the Miscellanea Storica Senese,* how- 
ever, contests this statement, and quotes a docu- 
ment in the Archives dated I562, 3 which states 
that a certain person, called there Giovan Battista 
nostro, designed four scenes from the Story of 
Elijah for the Duomo floor, which, we gather from 
the same sources, were executed by the Cathedral 
masons, Niccolo di Girolamo Gori, Domenico di 
Pier Giovanni, and the same Bernardino di 
Jacomo. 

This Giovan Battista was Giovanni Battista di 
Girolamo Sozzini, brother of Alessandro Sozzini, 
Diarist of the last Siege of Siena. He was a 
pupilofBeccafumi's,andof his work, ScipioBargagli 
in his Imprese speaks in high praise, specially men- 
tioning some mandorle designed by him, "placed 

1 // Pavimento del Duomo di Siena e il Professor Alessandro 
Franchi, by Luigi Mussini. (Florence, Le Monnier, 1880). 

2 Miscellanea Storica Senese. Gennaio-Febbraio, 1898. 

3 14 Agosto 1562. El di, settantacinque sol. - pagati a 
Giovan Battista nostro per detto di messer Azzolino Cerretani 
nostro dignissimo Operaio, per li cartoni et disegni fatti di 
4 storie d'Elia in 4 mandorle fatte in Duomo stimate per m 
Bernardino Scarpellino a esser piacere. Archivio detto. Libro 
d'Entrata ed Uscita 1562 n. 131 a. 43 (on the back). 

96 



THE PAVEMENT 

"near the grand works of the great Mecarino." 1 To 
add to these facts, we know that Sozzini retained 
in his possession many drawings by Beccafumi, 
and among them his cartoons for the floor. These 
designs he sold to the architect Tiburzio Span- 
nocchi, and it is recorded in the Archives of the 
Duomo, 2 that the Cathedral authorities en- 
deavoured, but apparently unsuccessfully, to re- 
cover them. Some of these have now, as we 
know, found their way into the Public Picture 
Gallery. These six designs differ in treatment 
from Beccafumi's other work, and the drawing 
and composition of them is not so striking. The 
large hexagons represent : 

1. The Compact between Elijah and Ahab (in 
the centre). (111. XIX.) No. 42. 3 

2. Ahab's Sacrifice (to the left). No. 44. 

3. Elijahs Sacrifice (above). No. 41. 

1 ... "si vedono aiicora, per chi vuole, alcune mandorle 
"per lui disegnate nel nobilissimo pavimento di marmi del nostro 
" Duomo, presso alle opere grandi del gran Mecarino allogate." 
Scipione Bargagli. Le Imprese. (Venezia, 1594.) 

2 1565. 1 6 Ottobre. Ancora inteso come Giovan Battista 
Sozzini ha tramandati certi disegni et venduti, per quanto 
s'intende, a Tiburtio Spannocchi, e intendendosi che sono 
disegni de lo spazzo del Duomo e apartenere a la detta Opera, 
deliberarono che li due de' Savi, che nominera el Magnifico 
Rettore, che col Magnifico Rettore si faccino chiamare li detti 
Giovan Battista et Tiburtio a la loro presentia, e si domandino 
di tali disegni ; et quando ne trovino riferischino al Capitolo. 
Archivio detto. Registro E. x a 32. 

3 These numbers correspond with those on the Plan and the 
Scheme of the Pavement. 

97 H 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

4. The Slaughter of the Prophets of Baal (to 
the right). No. 43. 

The small ones : 

5. Ahab comes to meet Elijah. No. 46. 

6. Elijah sends Obadiah to fetch Ahab. No. 45. 
It does not seem to me, however, that the learned 

writer of the above-referred-to article brings for- 
ward any real ground for doubting Beccafumi's 
authorship of these designs. The Document 
quoted, and Scipio Bargagli, both speak of " man- 
dorle" which appears to have been the technical 
expression for the lozenges filling up the great 
hexagon, in contradistinction to the words "tondo" 
or " esagono" used to describe the larger sections. 
The documents dated 6th of September, 1521, and 
1 8th of June, 1524, together expressly mention 
four tondi and two mandorle, which exactly 
accounts for the designs in question. It seems 
unnecessary, therefore, to strain the word man- 
dorle to mean something else than its more 
obvious meaning : and it is surely much more 
probable, that the document and quotation, both 
refer to designs for the remaining four mandorle, 
which are generally supposed to have been filled 
in by Carlo Amidei, and Matteo Pini in I78O. 1 
However this may be, the smallness of the sum 
paid for the designs, 75 soldi, makes the idea, 
that it was a payment for drawings of any size, 
even more improbable and absurd. 

1 Faluschi MSS., p. 25 (on the back). 
9 8 



THE PAVEMENT 




ALINARI PHOTO.] [UESIGJ^ED KY 

DOMENICO BECCAFUMI 

XIX. ELIJAH'S COMPACT WITH AHAB (No. 42) 

The three remaining hexagons, up to 1878, 
contained fragments, and most interesting frag- 
ments, of older work, which evidently once formed 

99 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

part of the floor, where the High Altar now stands. 
To the left, looking east, was a delightful design 
representing the Blind leading the Blind. An old 
man is holding one end of a stick, while a young 
man, also blind, is grasping it at the other end. 
The older man is just stepping over a precipice 
into space. Below them is a delightful putto, hold- 
ing in one hand a mirror, and a label with the word 
" Notate" upon it. This design we know to have 
been the work of Antonio Federighi in 1459 ; and 
for it he received 46 lire. 1 It was apparently or- 
dered by the Rector, Benedetto di Biagio di Ro- 
berto, and completed during the Directorate of 
Cristofano Felice. 2 

The middle design illustrates the Parable of the 
Mote and the Beam; and though it dates from 
I 374'5 3 strangely enough is now in the best pre- 
servation of the three. 

The third design was a scene of a stately-looking 



1 1459. 19 d'Aprile. "Anne dati a di xviiii d'Aprile 1459 
lire quarantasei, e qual den : sonno per la Storia del due ciechi 
che stanno in terra a piei del Coro di Duomo, che sonno a 
misura braccia xi misurate per detto dell' operaio coe (sic) 
Benedetto di Bigio (sic : Biagio) di Ruberto hoperaio, a ragione 
di lire iiii el braccio ; la quale storia fu fatta al tempo di misser 
Christofano Filigi hoparaio stato." Archivio detto. Libro Rosso 
d'una Stella a 162 (on the back). 

2 At this date the Operaii were elected annually. See Bor- 
ghesi and Faluschi MSS. Lists of Operaii. 

' I 374'5> J 7 Marzo. Si fe lo spazzo di Duomo delle due 
figure delle travi nell' occhio ; tu mivi la una brusca e non mivi 
la tua travi. (Cron : del Bisdomini). Borghesi MS. 

IOO 



THE PAVEMENT 

bearded man, giving alms to a woman with a child 
in her arms. This is generally supposed to be 
that work of Domenico del Coro l which is referred 
to in a document dated 1433, as being placed by 
him in the choir (then under the cupola) from the 
lectern downwards, in that place ivhere they stand 
to sing? and for which he received 357 lire. 

It is impossible now to tell what was the ori- 
ginal shape of these designs, or where they were 
placed. But to fit them into the hexagons, they were 
made into more or less complete triangles, the re- 
mainder of the space being filled up with fragments 
of old friezes, brought probably from the same 
place. 

In 1875, the fragments left of them, and of the 
four later mandorle, were removed to the Museum 
of the Opera, where they now are, and in 1878, all 
seven were replaced by others, completing the Story 
of Elijah and A had. 

The subjects chosen are, for the larger ones : 

1 1433. M Domenicho di Niccholo M di lengname die 
avere lire treciento cinquanta sette per una istoria a fatto nelo 
spazzo del choro da legio in giii quella di choloro trovaro incanto, 
il quale salogo da Miss. Bartolomeio di giovanni ciechi operaio 
di duomo per L 7 el braccio quadro fu misurato il detto lavoro 
per maestro chola di nanni, e matteio di domenicho maestri 
dell'uopera al quale fu tutto di marnio, apare al memor : di 
pavolo. Archivio detto. Libro Giallo dal 1420 al 1444 a 267 
(on the back). 

2 This sentence is ambiguous, as it is most difficult to under- 
stand for certain, what is really meant by incanto; but I am 
assured, that it should in modern Italian run thus : qnella di 
coloro che trovarano in canto (cantando). 

IOI 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

1 . Ahab mortally wounded. No. 40. 

2. Elijah carried to Heaven in a Chariot of 
Fire. No. 38. (111. XXVI.) 

3. Elijah predicts the manner of Ahab 's death. 
No. 39. 

For the smaller ones : 

1. Elijah fed by Ravens. No. 47. 

2. Elijah raises the widow s son. No. 50. 

3. Elijah asks bread of the widow. No. 49. 

4 . Elijah anoints Jehii, King of Israel. No. 48 . 
These designs were made by Professor Ales- 

sandro Franchi, the present Director of the Ac- 
cademiadelle Belle Arti, and were executed under 
his direction by Leopoldo Maccari and Antonio 
Radicchi. 1 The smaller ones follow to some extent 
the older lines, but in the larger ones, the artist 
has struck out for himself; and, if the result is in 
somewhat startling contrast toeverything preceding 
it, there is no doubt that his work is full of skill 
and merit of a most scholarly and remarkable kind. 
Under his care, and with the able support of the 
above-mentioned two artists, aided by a generous 
legacy of a former Rector, Cav. Pietro Bambagini 
Galletti, the whole Pavement has undergone the 
Restoration, to which I have referred so often, 2 
and is now in as perfect a condition as constant 
loving and intelligent care can keep it, without 
entirely hoarding it from view. 

1 The cost of these works was 86,739 lire 350. 

2 Between the years 1864-1869 alone, no less a sum than 
40,000 lire from this fund was expended on restoration 

IO2 



CHAPTER III 

THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

THE reader, having patiently followed me along 
the intricacies of the Pavement, and the 
ramifications of its history, will now like to know 
something more detailed about the men who made 
it. To satisfy this wish, I have collected from 
various sources, chiefly from Milanesi, the follow- 
ing notes. 

Padre Micheli 1 gives no less than forty-one 
names of workers of various sorts on the Pave- 
ment. To these the writer in Miscellanea 2 
adds three more ; and if with them we include 
the six artists and sculptors, who, since the middle 
of the eighteenth century, and up to the present 
day, have restored, replaced, and made additions, 
we arrive at a total of more than fifty men, who 
have, in one way or another, contributed to this 
beautiful work. 3 

1 // Pavimento del Duomo di Siena. The learned father's 
list is not absolutely to be depended upon, as, through inadvert- 
ence, he has made several mistakes in names, thereby causing 
confusion. 

2 Miscellanea Storica Senese. Gennaio - Febbraio, 1898. 

3 In the course of this chapter and in my Scheme, I have 

103 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Of these, many remain but as names recorded 
in documents concerning the Pavement, and are 
heard of nowhere else ; of others we catch a few 
glimpses in the pages of Milanesi ; about a dozen 
were celebrated in their day as painters and sculp- 
tors, in the somewhat limited world of Sienese 
Art, and have left specimens of their work else- 
where ; while two alone, Pinturicchio and Becca- 
fumi, have attained world-wide fame. 

I propose then to take the names of these men, 
according to the dates of the first work contributed 
by them to the Pavement. 

Thus we begin with : 



"to 



i. 1369. Antonio di Brunaccio. 

This earliest name, connected with work on the 
Pavement, is of a man, about whom we do not 
know very much. In 1362, we find him witness- 
ing two contracts made between the Operaio and 
a certain Francesco di Tonghio, for woodwork 
(stalls and a lectern) made for the Choir of the 
Duomo. He is among the sculptors, whose names 
are entered in the Book of Arts and Crafts of the 
City of Siena, under date 1363, and in the follow- 
ing year, he binds himself to do certain work in the 
Cathedral, and the Cappella di Piazza. In 1369, 
we read of his making a small lion, to adorn a 

added four more names. They are scarcely entitled to rank 
among the Duomo Pavement masters, but, as they are neces- 
sary to the full evolution of its history, I have decided to admit 
them into the list. 

104 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

fountain in the Palazzo Pubblico. He was, per- 
haps, the son of a certain Brunaccio di Santa 
Colomba, a sculptor, who signed the Sculptors 
Brief in the thirteenth century, quoted in the 
Nuovi Documenti. 1 

2. 1370. Sano di Marco. 

This man's name is also among those of the 
sculptors working in Siena in 1363. Milanesi 
mentions a daughter of his called Valentina, who 
married a sculptor named Paolo di Pietro, of the 
parish (Popolo) of San Stefano : but there is no 
other record about him. 

3. 1370. Francesco di Ser Antonio. 

Appears to have been a painter, and we find his 
name on the list of artists flourishing in Siena in 
I4O2. 2 He was also consulted in 1376 as to the 
walls of the Cappella di Piazza ; and was witness 
to a contract made with Giacomo di Buonfredi, 
called Corbello, for certain work done on the faade 
of the Duomo. He must not, however, be con- 
fused with Francesco d'Antonio di Francesco, the 
goldsmith, who lived many years later. 

4. 1376. Matteo di Bartolo. 

5. 1380. Nanni di Corsino. 

Of these men, and their work, nothing is known, 
but the notices already quoted. 

: Nuovi Documenti, p. 3. 
2 Mil. Doc., vol. i., p. 39. 
105 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

6. 1398. Sano, or Ansano di Maestro Matteo. 

Of this sculptor and architect, notices exist from 
1392 to 1429. He was a native of Siena, and 
might have been the son of the Matteo di Bartolo 
mentioned above, although we cannot prove it. 
He married twice : first, Cristofora di Cecco di 
Domenico ; and secondly, after her death, a certain 
Madonna Bartolommea. In 1402, we find him 
witness to a contract, given to Giacomo di Gio- 
vanni, " a key-maker" (chiavaio] to make an iron 
railing round the pulpit in the Duomo in Siena. 
I n 1 404, he held the post of Petrone, or valuer, to 
the Commune, and Director of the City water- 
supply, and was re-appointed in 1407. In 1408 
and in 1409, we also find him recommending Cris- 
toforo di Francesco, a Sienese sculptor, first to the 
Orvieto Cathedral authorities, and then to the Sig- 
noria of Siena. He was, in 1416, elected Castellan 
of the fortalice of Montalcino, but, being engaged 
to assist Giacomo della Quercia in his work on the 
Fonte Gaia, sent Maestro Giovanni di Giacomo, 
as his lieutenant. 1 He was Capo-maestro of the 
Duomo at Orvieto for various periods during the 
years 1407-1425, and during that time he made 
the font there. 2 He also added a new chapel to 
the Cathedral. In 1416, he too was among the 

1 18 Luglio, 1416. Archivio delle Riformagione di Siena. 
Deliberazioni del Concistoro, ad annum. 

2 In 1407, not in 1400, as Padre della Valle states. Archivio 
dell' Opera del Duomo d'Orvieto. Libro di Riformanze ad 
annum. 

1 06 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

artists employed on the Font in the Baptistery at 
Siena, and in 1426-27, he was called to Perugia 
to superintend the drainage works of Lake Thrasy- 
mene. Among the Sienese State Records of 
1427-28 are three letters from the Signoria to 
him, apologizing for not sending him an apprentice, 
but recalling him home : together with letters ad- 
dressed, one to the Pope's Legate, Bishop Pietro 
Donate, and the other to Antonio Casini, Cardinal 
of San Marcello, asking leave for him to return : 
the object being, that he should build the Loggia 
di S. Paolo, (now the Casino dei Nobili). Among 
the documents extracted by Signori Borghesi and 
Banchi, we find several referring to work done by 
Sano at Perugia : among other things, the con- 
struction of a mill at Ragulano. We also learn 
that, for the months of May and June, 1414, he 
was Gonfaloniere of the Compagnia di Rialto e 
Cartagne. He had two daughters : Caterina, 
born on July 3Oth, 1405 ; and Mattia, who married 
Gherardo di Niccolo. 1 

7. 1398. Luca di Cecco. 

A sculptor, whose signature is also found attached 
to the document mentioned above. In 1375, and 
again in 1377, his name occurs as witness to con- 
tracts for works of art : the first, a picture for the 
High Altar of the Duomo, to be made by Lorenzo 
di Vanni and Nuccio di Neruccio : the second, 

1 Rogiti di Ser Giovanni di Danielle. 27 Maggio, 1463. 

107 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

a marble statue by Mariano d'Agnolo and Bar- 
tolommeo di Tomme, for the Cappella del Campo. 
In 1386, he was commissioned to make some 
marble steps for the interior of the Duomo. 

8. 1405. Cecco di Giovanni. 
Another unrecorded artist. 

9. 1406. Mar ekes se d' Adamo. 

Of this man, or of his stonemason companions 
from Como, we hear nothing more than the short 
notice I have given already. We know that 
Comacene and Lombard workmen, especially 
masons and sculptors, were labouring in great 
numbers all over Italy at this period, and that 
they have left their traces very markedly, through- 
out all Tuscan and Umbrian Art. We know also, 
that the stone workers of Siena made a compact 
with those of Lombardy, residing and working in 
that town, on the 5th of December, 1473, whereby 
they gave to them certain privileges on payment of 
suitable fees. 1 

10. 1423-33. Domenico di Niccolo del Coro. 

This great artist was born about 1363, and be- 
longed to the noble family of Spinelli. He was 
one of the cleverest and most prolific workers of 

' Mil. Doc., vol. i., p. 126. The compiler warns us that the 
original documents are lost, and that his transcription is from 
a faulty copy of the seventeenth century, preserved in the 
Biblioteca Pubblica of Siena. 

1 08 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

his day. His principal trade was that of a wood- 
carver ; and he is said to have obtained his surname 
of del Coro from his ability and success in design- 
ing and carving Choir-stalls. From 1413 to 1423, 
he held the post of Capo-maestro of the Opera del 
Duomo of Siena, and we have records of work 
done by him in glass, as well as in stone and wood. 
He worked on the older Fonte Gaia, made designs 
for an intended loggia (on the site of the present 
Casino dei Nobili), to face into the Piazza del 
Campo, 1 and was sent for to Orvieto to advise 
about the repair of the roof of the Duomo there. 
The panels, inlaid with the Symbols of the Creed, 
for the stalls of the Chapel of the Palazzo Pubblico, 
executed by him between the years 1 41 5-1 428, 2 
after designs said to be by Taddeo Bartoli, 3 are 
works of exceptional beauty. After a long life, in 
January 1446-7, we find him, at 84 years of age, 
begging the Signoria of Siena to grant him a 
pension. A sum of two florins a month was 
allowed to him, but he could not have enjoyed it 
for long, since after 1450 we entirely lose sight of 
him. 

ii. 1423. Agostino di Niccolo. 
The only specimen of this artist's work we know 

1 The making of this design was once attributed to Duccio. 
Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo di Siena. Libro dei Docu- 
menti Artistici, No. 40. 

2 Archivio delle Riformagioni di Siena. Deliber : del Gran 
Consiglio, T. 212. 

3 Mil. Doc., vol. ii., p. 72. 

109 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

of in Siena, is that on the Pavement. We have 
no other record of him except that in 1405, or 
perhaps even earlier, he was working at Orvieto, 
in company with a certain Nanni di Giacomo (a 
cadet of the noble house of Castori, or Amidei), a 
native of Lucca, but resident in Siena, and during 
the next year, with an artist named Orbetano, 
called il Mastro, also a Sienese. 

12. 1423. Bastiano di Cor so. 

Concerning this artist, we know that he came 
from Florence, lived a long time in Siena, and 
died rather before 1455. His family name was 
Giuliani, and he married Francesca di Cristoforo 
Pastella, by whom he had four sons : Taddeo ; 
Cristoforo (born 1422); Corso (of whom presently), 
and Giuliano, who married, in 1469, Marianna, 
daughter of Pietro Paoletti. Both of these were 
sculptors, like their father. Milanesi gives many 
notices of work in marble done by this artist, in 
company with his sons, in the Cathedral, the 
Baptistery, the Hospital of Sta. Maria della Scala, 
and the Loggia di S. Paolo. 

13. 1426. Paolo di Martino. 

Of this man, beyond the records of him in con- 
nexion with the Pavement, scarcely anything is 
known. He appears once, as witness to a contract 
for some carved figures for the Duomo. A curious 
fact occurs also, as to work done by him in the 
before-mentioned Chapel of the Palazzo Pubblico. 

1 10 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

In 1414, he, his brother Antonio, and a certain 
Simone d' Antonio, were commissioned to decorate 
the stalls of that Chapel. Their work seems not 
to have given public satisfaction, with the result 
that the commission was taken away from them, 
and given to Domenico del Coro, who, as we -have 
seen, executed his task triumphantly. 

14. 1434. Domenico di Bartolo di Ghezzo da 
Asciano. 

We find the name of this artist on the Roll of 
Sienese Painters in 1428. Vasari would have us 
believe, that he was the nephew of Taddeo Bartoli. 
This, however, is proved to be erroneous, because 
we know that Taddeo was the son of a barber, 
one Bartolo di Maestro Mino : that his brother 
died childless ; and that his sister Petra married 
a notary of Radicondoli, named Ser Antonio 
Gennari. Domenico Bartoli was a member of the 
well-known Ghezzi family of Asciano, and a 
picture by him is still to be seen in the Church of 
St. Agostino in his native town. He was born 
about 1400, married in 1440 1 Donna Antonia 
Pannilini, and died in 14.46? He was an artist of 

1 Romagnuoli MS. (Biblioteca Communale di Siena), vol. iv., 
p. 444. 

2 Delia Valle, Lettere Senesi, vol. ii. 197, 1444. In the Ar- 
chivio di Stato of Siena there is a contract to purchase a piece of 
land by the said Antonia, in which she is described as " Antonia 
. . . vedova olim magistri dmci Bartali de Asciano pictoris dis- 
trictus Senensis. Archivio di Stato. Pergam. d. convento di 

112 




[BY DOMENICO DI BARTOLO D'ASCIANO 

XXL THE EMPEROR SIGISMUND (No. 13) 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

very great merit, His finest works are his frescoes 
in the Pellegrinaggio of the Hospital of Sta. 
Maria della Scala at Siena, which were painted in 
1 443-44. 1 These frescoes throw a vivid light on 
the manners, customs, costume, and style of archi- 
tecture of the period in which he lived, and form a 
remarkable picture of Sienese life at that date. It 
is, moreover, most interesting to note how much 
the decorative effects, employed by him in his 
work, foreshadow the coming Renaissance. 

15. 1434. Giacomo d Antonio 

Appears to have been merely a workman (mano- 
vale), as, except the record quoted, no other notice 
appears of him among those hitherto extracted. 

1 6. 1447. Pietro di Tommaso del Minella. 
A native of Siena, this famous sculptor and archi- 
tect was born on the 2 ist of December, 1391. He 
was son of a certain Tommaso, surnamed Minella 
and had two brothers, Antonio and Giovanni 
(both workers in wood), the latter of whom became 
a Franciscan monk, and Rector of the Hospital 
of Sta. Croce. Pietro was a favourite pupil of 
Giacomo della Quercia, who left him ten florins 
in his will ; and he worked with that great master 

S. Maria degli Angeli. Nr. 88. 18 Feb., 1446. Index X. See 
also H. J. Wagner, Domenico di Bartolo Ghezzi, etc. 

1 Archivio dello Spedale di Sta. Maria della Scala di Siena. 
Libro di conti correnti, segnato a carte 99. 

114 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

on the famous Font in the Baptistery. From 1431 
to 1433, he was Capo-maestro of the Opera del 
Duomo at Orvieto, and with his brother Antonio, 
executed some works there in intarsiaon the stalls. 
In 1437, Quercia gave him some commissions in 
connection with the Loggia di S. Paolo, and in 1439 
he was employed to make the choir for the Chapel 
of the Hospital of Sta. Maria della Scala. Out of 
this much litigation arose, which was settled by the 
giving of a dowry to his daughter. 1 In 1441, he and 
his brother Antonio were commissioned to make a 
new Bishops' Throne for the Cathedral at Orvieto, 2 
adorned with figures of SS. John and Costanzo ; 
but apparently, whether for want of funds or for 
what reason does not appear, the work was never 
completed. 3 He remained at Orvieto until March, 
1444, when he returned to Siena, where he had 
been commissioned by the Council to execute 
further work on the Loggia di S. Paolo. 4 In 
August of that year he was in treaty to go back 
to Orvieto, and we find a document, showing that 
he asked in payment for his services 120 ducats 

1 This work was eventually completed by his brothers 
Antonio and Giovanni. Cf. Nuovi Document!, p. 163. 

2 1441, dal Gennaio al Ottobre. Archivio del Duomo 
d' Orvieto. Libro di Riformanze di detto anno. He is called 
there " PETRUS DE SENIS," and "PETRUS HERMINELLE.''^^*!)') 

3 See Luigi Fumi, // Duomo d 1 Orvieto e i suoi Restauri, pp. 
277 and 294-297. (Rome, La Societa Laziale Tipografico- 
Editrice.) ' r^r| 

4 1444. Febbraio 10. Archivio de' Contratti in Siena. Con- 
cistoro Scritture ad annum. 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

and a house, but agreed to accept no without the 
house, arranging to come to Orvieto about the 
middle of October to complete his bargain. 1 In 
September, however, he was promised by the 
Camarlingo (perhaps the Treasurer) of the Opera 
del Duomo at Siena, the post of Capo-maestro 
there. This appointment, however, he did not 
at first obtain, though he was employed on the 
tomb of Carlo Bartoli, Bishop of Siena, for which 
he received, as his share, a sum of 38 lire 8 
soldi ; 2 and in the following year on the Chapel 
of S. Crescenzio in the Duomo. 3 At last, in 1447, 
he was appointed Capo-maestro, and during his 
occupation of the post, he designed the Church of 
S. Ansano. He died in August, 1458, having 
married Cristofora, daughter of Maestro Pannucci, 
surnamed Cinquino, and had by her three sons 
Tone (Canon of the Duomo), Niccolo, and Sano, 
who died in 1498, having married Polissena, 
daughter of Arnoldo di Fortunato, by whom he 
had six sons. 

17. 1450. N as t agio di Guasparre. 

1 1444. Agosto 26. Archivio della Fabbrica del Duomo 
d'Orvieto. Libro di Riformanze ad annum. 

a 1444. Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo di Siena. Libro 
delle Deliberazioni segnato E 4. a 10 (on the back). 

3 1445. Aprile 4. Archivio detto. Pergamena, No. 1532. 
1452. Maggio 27. Archivio e Libro detti. a. 117. 

This chapel we learn was not completed until 1452, and he 
ought to have paid a fine of fifty florins for such delay. He 
was, however, absolved from the penalty. 

116 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

1 8. 1450. Bartolomeo di Mariano, called 

" II Mandriano" 
19. 1451. Guasparre d'Agostino. 

Of the first and second of these three men 
nothing is known but their names, and the notice 
which records their work, described in the last 
chapter. As I have suggested, Nastagio di Guas- 
parre and Guasparre d'Agostino may have been 
father and son, or master and pupil. I have also 
referred to the fact that Guasparre d'Agostino 
painted frescoes of the Crucifixion and Burial of 
Christ in the apse over the altar of the Baptistery, 1 
and was commissioned to paint some scenes from 
the life of S. Bernardino for the Sacristy of the 
Duomo. We are told also by Milanesi 2 that he 
was the master of Franeesco di Giorgio and Ne- 
roccio di Bartolommeo Landi. 

20. 1451. Cor so di Bastiano. 

Son of Bastiano di Corso, he married Nanna, 
daughter of a certain Simone di Niccolo, surnamed 
Calabrese, a maker of drinking vessels. He was, 
as we have seen, a sculptor like his father, with 
whom he worked. We read, besides, however, 
that he made the balcony of the Palazzo Pubblico, 3 
whence the sentences on criminals were read, and 

1 Guida Artistica, p. 56. 

2 Discorso sulla Storia Artistica Senese, p. 53. 

3 Biblioteca Pubblica di Siena. Libro del Maestro della 
Camera dal 1453 al 1464 a 376. 

117 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

executed certain marble work at the Oratorio di 
Sta. Caterina in Fontebranda. 1 

21. 1459- Antonio di Federigo or Federighi 
(Federigi). 

This sculptor and architect was one of the 
glories of Siena in his time. In one document, to 
be referred to later, he is called Tolomei (de 
Ptholomeis], but we have no record as to his birth 
or family. In 1444, he was among the artists 
employed on the tomb of Bishop Carlo Bartoli, 
and for his share in the work he received 15 lire. 
In 1451, he was appointed Capo-maestro of the 
Opera del Duomo at Orvieto, 2 where he remained 
until 1456, living in considerable style. 3 He had 
with him all the time his two pupils, Polimante of 
Assisi and Vito di Marco, both of whom were 
paid by the Duomo authorities. He was evidently 
held in high honour, for we find on April yth, 
1452, 4 the Signoria of Siena writing to the heads 
of the Commune at Orvieto, to ask them to re- 
commend him to the notice of the Duke of Cala- 

1 Archivio delle Riformagioni di Siena. Revisioni delle 
Regioni de' Camarlinghi e Uffiziali del Commune, vol. viii. a 413 
e seg. 

2 1451. Settembre 14. Archivio Delia Fabbrica del Duomo 
d'Orvieto. Riformanze ad annum. 

3 We read that he kept two servants and horses for which 
the establishment allowed him "Libr. quatuorderim, sol, decem." 
Archivio detto. Libro d'Uscita del Camarlingo, ad annum. 

4 1452 Aprile 7. Archivio del Comune d'Orvieto. Car- 
teggio ad annum. Cf. Nuovi Documenti, p. 169. 

118 




THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

bria. In April, 1453, with safe 
conducts from the Republic of 
Florence and the King of Naples, 
he, with seven companions, went 
to Carrara to quarry marble, and 
in October of the same year he 
started for Corneto for a simi- 
lar purpose ; but was recalled 
on the 5th of the same month, 
to advise as to the roof of one 
of the Chapels in the Duomo, 
which threatened to collapse. In 
September, 1456, he made, and 
put into position, one of the 
statues on the facade. During 
this period he made statues of 
SS. Ansano, Vittore, and Savino 
for the Loggia di Mercanzia or 
S. Paolo (now the Casino dei 
Nobili), and executed the work 
before the doors of the Baptist- 
ery, to which we have already 
alluded. (111. XXII.) After 1456, 
he appears to have returned to 
Siena, for we find a number 
of references to a commission 
for the statues of SS. Peter and 
Paul, given first to Urbano da 
Cortona, then to Federighi, and 
lastly to Lorenzo di Pietro (// 
Vecckietta] ; the special object of 

119 



XXII. CANDLESTICK 

BY ANTONIO FEDERIGHI 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

the last change being to keep that artist in Siena.' 
From 1460 to 1462, he was engaged in the design 
and erection of the magnificent Loggia di Papa, 
built by Pope Pius II. ; and in 1463, on the palace 
of that Pope's sister, Caterina Piccolomini, called 
then Palazzo delle Papesse, but now styled Palazzo 
Nerucci? In 1469-70, we hear of work done by 
him at the Oratorio di S. Caterina in Fonte- 
branda; in 1473 ne was party to the contract 
made between the Sienese and Lombard workers 
in stone ; and in 1480, he petitioned the author- 
ities with reference to the drainage and water- 
supply of the town. 3 Other noticeable works by 
him are the marble bench on the right-hand side 
of the Loggia di Mercanzia, before mentioned ; 
the basins of the two holy water stoups at the west 
end of the Cathedral Nave (attributed, wrongly, 
to Quercia) ; and the Chapel and Palace, outside 
the Porta Camellia, known as the Palazzo dei 
Diavoli. 

22. 1473. Urbano di Pietro di Domenico da 
Cortona. 

This artist came with his brother Bartolommeo, 
in his early youth, from his native city of Cor- 

1 Mil. J)oc., vol. ii. p. 309. 

1463, i Giugno. Archivio delle Riformagioni di Siena. 
Copialettere filza 85. It is in this document that he is 
spoken of as De Ptholomeis. 

3 1480. Archivio detto. Libro di No. 107 del Gradino 
xxxiv. 

I2O 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

tona, to settle in Siena, where in 145I, 1 they toge- 
ther undertook to build the Chapel of the Madonna 
delle Grazie, in the Duomo. In the same year he 
was commissioned, as we have seen, to make two 
statues for the Loggia di Mercanzia,-but the com- 
mission was cancelled. In 1456, he made a statue 
of S. Bernardino for the Convent of the Osser- 
vanza, and a figure of S. Peter for the facade of 
the Duomo. In 1458, the Signoria of Siena de- 
liberated as to the suitability of employing him, 
in company with Donatello, to procure alabaster 
from the Val D'Orcia, to decorate a room in the 
Palazzo Pubblico. 2 Among the records of the 
Oratorio di Sta. Caterina in Fontebranda, between 
the years 1465 and 1474, we find two notices of 
work by him : namely, a statue of the Saint over 
the Chapel door, and a holy- water stoup. In 
1471, he had a dispute with Bastianodi Francesco, 
as to the price due for work done by the latter, 
in which Vecchietta was one of the two arbi- 
trators. In the same year he was employed on 
the Palazzo delle Papesse, and in 1473, we find him 
also joining in the contract made by the Sienese 
sculptors with their Lombard fellow-craftsmen. 
In 1497-98, he was one of the arbitrators in a dis- 

1 1451, Ottobre 19. Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo di 
Siena. Libro di Memorie segnato E. iv., p. 29, e seg. Also 
Archivio detto, Filza de' Ricordi, e memorie. Bastardello 
d' Andrea di Bernabe dal 1450 al 1467 a 23. 

2 We do not hear that this scheme was ever carried out. 
Probably not. 

121 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

pute between Giovanni di Stefano and his work- 
men. 1 He died in Siena, on May the 8th, 1504, 
leaving, by his wife, Caterina Scotti, a daughter, 
Lucrezia, who married Ser Pasquale Griffi, of 
Montalcino ; his son Tommaso having prede- 
ceased him. His finest works still existing are 
the decorations for the Chapel of the Madonna 
delle Grazie referred to above, which are now 
affixed to the walls of the Duomo, near the door 
leading to the Campanile stairs ; and the tomb of 
Cav. Cristoforo Felice (Rector 1457-58 and 1460- 
65) in the church of S. Francesco in Siena. 

23. 1473. Matteo di Giovanni di Bartolo. 
This artist, also known as Matteo da Siena, was 
born about 1435. It was erroneously supposed, 
that he was the son of Giovanni di Paolo di 
Grazia, the painter of Poggio Malavolti, and 
brother of Pietro and Benvenuto di Giovanni, 
also painters of repute. As a matter of fact, 
however, Matteo's father was a certain Giovanni 
di Bartolo, a merchant of Borgo San Sepolcro, 
who had settled in Siena, by his second wife, 
Elisabetta, daughter of Andrea d'Ambrogio, a 
goldsmith : while Pietro was the son of another 
merchant, one Giovanni Pucci ; and Benvenuto, of 
a certain Giovanni di Maestro Meo del Guasta 
of San Ouirico. Moreover, Giovanni di Paolo 

* T 1497-98, Marzo 6. Archivio de' Contratti di Siena. Rogiti 
di Ser Pietro dall' Oca. Filza di Sentenza, Lodi e Compromessi 
dal 1484 al 1499. 

122 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

of Poggio was quite an old man when, in 1480, 
he married a woman called Domenica, by whom 
he had no children, as we find that by his will, 
dated June 29th, 1482, he left her his sole heiress. 
Matteo married twice ; first, a certain Contessa, 
by whom he had no children ; and secondly, 
Orsina di Francesco del Taia, by whom he had 
three sons and four daughters. He died in June, 
1495. He was a distinguished painter, much 
admired in his day, and had a very distinct charm 
of his own, in spite of his somewhat rigid adherence 
to old traditions. Many of his pictures are still in 
their original places in the churches of Siena, 1 and 
there are also some good specimens of his work 
in the Accademia delle Belle Arti in that town. 

24. 1473. Giovanni di Maestro Stefano di 
Giovanni. 

Son of the celebrated painter, usually called 
Sassetta. We first hear of him in 1452, as appeal- 
ing for judgment in the matter of the price of a 
fresco, over the Porta Romana, left unfinished by 
his father's death ; (subsequently completed by 
Sano di Pietro, and Lorenzo di Pietro, commonly 
called // Vecchietta). In August 1446, he was 
commissioned, with the assistance of the goldsmith 

1 In the Churches of S. Domenico, S. Agostino, Sta. Maria 
delle Neve, and Sta. Maria dei Servi, are fine pictures by him, 
still in situ, and a magnificent Assumption of the Virgin once 
in the Chapel of the Monastery of S. Eugenio, outside the 
Porta S. Marco, is now in the National Gallery, in London. 

123 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Francesco d'Antonio, to make a silver head of 
Sta. Caterina, for the Monks of S. Domenico in 
Siena. 1 He made a model for the head, which 
Francesco executed in silver ; 2 and perhaps the 
tabernacle also, although that has been attributed 
to Vecchietta. In 1466-68, 3 we find a petition, 
addressed to the Signoria, for the erection of two 
stone wolves outside the Porta Nuova, or Romana. 
These are generally supposed to have been the 
work of this artist. In 1477, he was recommended 
by the Signoria of Siena to Federigo, Duke of 
Urbino ; and in 1481, was witness to the commis- 
sion, given by the Opera del Duomo, to Urbano 
di Pietro, Antonio Federighi, Vito di Marco and 
Luigi di Ruggiero, to execute the Sibyls on the 
Duomo Pavement ; one of which (the Cuman) we 
know was, in the following year, his work. In 
1487, he executed the statue of S. Ansano (formerly 
attributed to Neroccio di Bartolommeo Landi, of 
whom presently) in the Chapel of S. Giovanni in 
the Duomo. 4 In 1427, in company with Giacomo 
Cozzarelli, and Domenico di Matteo, he made a 
valuation of the bronze doors, for the Libreria in 

1 1466. Agosto 3. Archivio de' Contratti di Siena. Filza 
di Ser Minoccio di Gio. di Minoccio. 

1 This head was re-made in its present shape in the eighteenth 
century, at the expense of Conte Marcello Biringucci. Mil. 
Doc., vol. ii., p. 335. 

3 1467-68. Marzo 4. Archivio delle Riformagioni di Siena. 
Deliberazioni del Concistoro ad annum. 

4 1487. Luglio 17. Archivio del' Opera del Duomo di Siena. 
Libro dei Contratti segnato E 8. a 16. 

124 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

the Duomo, executed by Giacomo Ormanni ; and in 
the same year we read of the dispute with his 
workmen, to which we have alluded above. In 
1497-98, he also executed two of the bronze 
angels 1 for the High Altar of the Duomo. The 
celebrated sculptor. Lorenzo di Mariano, better 
known as // Marrina, was one of his pupils. 

25. 1473. Bartolommeo de Domenico Calabrone. 

26. 1473- Francesco di Bartolommeo. 

Both these men appear to have been sculptors, 
and are associated together, as arbitrators, with 
Urbano da Cortona, in the dispute referred to 
above, between Giovanni di Stefano and his work- 
men. Of the former, we also find a record, under 
date August nth, 1507, as arbitrator between 
Lorenzo di Mariano (// Marrina) and Battista di 
Simone, 2 and we are told that he was surnamed 
Baccelli, and died in i53i. 3 Of Francesco we 
know nothing more, except that he also signed 
the contract with the Lombard sculptors. 

27. 1482. Giuliano di Biagio. 

Of this artist, we know nothing, beyond the 
reference to his work on the Pavement, of which 
mention has been made above. He appears, how- 

1 Mil. Doc., vol. ii., p. 464, vol. Hi., p. 306. Milanesi states 
that Tizio is the authority for this fact. 

2 Archivio de' Contratti di Siena. Filza di ser Francesco 
Martini. 

3 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., p. 36. 

125 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

ever, to have been not merely the mason, but also 
the contractor, who procured the marble for his 
own work. 1 

28. 1482. Vito di Marco. 

A German, who, with his brother Giovanni, 
came to settle in Siena, as a mason. He was, as 
we have seen above, a pupil of Antonio Federighi, 
and was employed under him, on the works at 
Orvieto. In 1473, he was also party to the con- 
tract between the Sienese and Lombard sculptors. 
In 1483-84, he was commissioned, in company 
with a certain Lucillo di Maestro Marco, to exe- 
cute the tomb of Tommaso del Testa Piccolomini, 
Bishop of Pienzaand Montalcino, 2 which commis- 
sion, through his absence from Siena, and the 
death of Lucillo, was transferred in the following 
year to Neroccio di Bartolommeo Landi. In 
1487, he executed the fa9ade of the church of S. 
Andrew at Orvieto, in which city we find him still 
working in 1489-91. He died in 1495. 

29. 1482. Luigi di Ruggiero, surnamed 
U Armellino. 

This man also joined in the above-mentioned 

1 Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo di Siena. Libro Rosso 
d'un Leone ad annum a 35. 

- 1483-84. Marzo 10. Archivio de' Contratti di Siena. 
Rogiti di ser Giovanni di Danielle. It is curious that the 
words di Maestro Marco should be used in 'both documents to 
designate Lucillo, as if to mark that he was not a relation. 
Milanesi, however, in his Index, calls him Vito's brother. 

126 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

contract with the Lombard stone workers (1473). 
In January, 1486-87, we find the Signoria of Siena 
writing to Ottaviano, Count of Mercatelli, on his 
behalf, for arrears of salary due to him for work 
done. 1 He also appears to have been a contractor, 
as well as a sculptor. 2 

30. 1483. Bastiano di Francesco di Sano. 

. This man was a sculptor and a painter, but it is 
uncertain whether he is the same person, as the 
Florentine sculptor Bastiano di Francesco, who, 
with Francesco di Giovanni, was employed to 
build the tomb of Pope Pius III. in S. Peter's at 
Rome. 3 We do not know much about him, beyond 
the work which he did in the Duomo. In 1481, 
he assisted Guidoccio Cozzarelli, Benvenuto di 
Giovanni del Guasta, and Pellegrino di Mariano, 
in decorating the interior of the Cupola with sculp- 
ture and painting. We gather, that in 1484, he 
moved the beautiful tomb of Cardinal Petroni, by 
Tino di Camaino, 4 from its original place near the 
present Cappella del Voto, to its present lofty 
position, by the Cappella di S. Giovanni. To 

1 1486-87. Archivio delle Riformagioni di Siena. Copia- 
lettere, No. III. 

2 1482. Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo di Siena. Libro 
d'un Leone a 34 (on the back). 

3 Nuovi Documenti, p. 391. Cf. Document dated 150 ... 
Archivio Piccolomineo, where, by the way, he is called " Bastia- 
nino di Francesco." 

1 This tomb is by some authorities considered not to be the 
work of Tino himself, but of his pupil Gano. 

127 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

him, in the same and following years, are also due 
the carved festoons, monstrous cherub heads, and 
painting 'and gilding round the east window (Occhio] 
of the choir. Twice we hear of him in legal diffi- 
culties : once, as we have mentioned already, with 
Urbano da Cortona in 1471 ; and again in 1477, 
when a certain doctor of laws, one Prospero Poccio, 
complained to the Podesta, that Bastiano would 
not finish a picture for him, that he had contracted 
to do. 1 He appears to have lived in the Valle 
Piattaat Siena. 2 (111. XXIII.) 

31. 1483. Benvenuto di Giovanni del Guasta. 

This versatile artist was the son, as we have 
seen, of a certain Giovanni di Meo del Guasta, a 
mason from San Quirico. He was born the I3th of 
September, 1436, and died about 1518. He married 
Jacopa, daughter of Tommaso da Cetona, by 
whom he had three daughters, and a son, Girolamo, 
also a clever artist. In 1466, we find him in com- 
pany with Sano di Pietro, valuing the decorative 
work on two chests, made by a certain Francesco 
d' Andrea, for Ambrogio Spannocchi. In 1481-82, 
as we have already noted, he was employed on 
the decoration of the interior of the Cupola in 
the Duomo, where he painted thirty-five figures, 

1 1477. 4 Giugno. Archivio de' Contratti di Siena. Carte 
di Ser Giovanni Cecchini. 

- 1491. Archivio di Stato in Siena. Denunzie, Terzo di 
Citta. Compagnia di Valle Piatta. 

128 




Jz; 



K 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

for which he received a sum of 105 lire. 1 In the 
same year, he painted miniatures in the Antiphon- 
aries, for the Duomo ; one of which, the largest, 
represented " the Giving of the Keys to S. Peter" 
for which he received 2 7 lire 1 4 soldi. 2 That he was 
much admired in his day as a painter, is evident 
from the number of notices still to be found of pay- 
ments made to him for banners, bier-heads and 
pictures of various sorts, by Convents and Guilds. 
Many of these still exist, either in the Churches 
for which they were painted, or in the Picture 
Gallery/ 1 In 1508, he was called as witness, in a 
lawsuit between Giovanni Battista di Bartolommeo 
Alberti and the heirs of Neroccio Landi, as to 
the price of an unfinished picture by that artist. 
From the two inventories of his property, made 
in 1491 and 1509, and the list of goods bequeathed 
by him to his son Girolamo, we gather that he 
lived in houses of his own : first, in the district of 
Camollia ; and latterly, in that of the Rialto in 
Siena. 

1 1482. Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo. Libro Giallo 
delle tre Rose a 383. 

2 1482. Dicembre 18. Archivio detto. Libro di un Leone 
a 19, e a 18 (on the back). 

3 In the second chapel to the right of the High Altar, in the 
Church of S. Uomenico (Bellanti Chapel, dedicated to SS. John 
and Anthony), a large panel, with a lunette above it, by him, 
is still to be seen in its original place. For this picture he 
received 45 florins. 1483. Novembre 17. Archivio del Patro- 
monio Ecclesiastico. Carte di S. Domenico. Libro di 
Memorie, A 18 a 15. 

I 3 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

32. 1483. Neroccio di Bartolommeo di 

Benedetto Landi. 

This great artist was equally celebrated, both 
as sculptor and painter. He belonged to the 
noble family of Landi, who are described as "of 
Poggio Malevolti" , to distinguish them from the 
family of Landi Sberghieri. He was born in 1447, 
and died in 1500. He was twice married : first, to 
Elisabetta, daughter of Antonio Cigalini, who died 
in 1483 ; and, secondly, in 1493 to Lucrezia, 
daughter of Antonio Paltoni, who bore him several 
sons, one of whom was a painter as was his father. 1 
Many of his pictures and statues still exist in 
Siena, in the places for which he designed them. 
In 1475, he appears to have quarrelled with Fran- 
cesco di Giorgio ; a dispute that was settled by 
the kindly offices of Sano di Pietro and Lorenzo 
di Pietro (// Vecchietta). In the following year 
we find the same Sano di Pietro, with Francesco di 
Giorgio, valuing a picture, painted by Neroccio, 
for a certain Bernardino Nini. In the records of 
the Oratorio di Sta, Caterina in Fontebranda, 2 we 
find that this artist was paid 31 lire, for a wooden 
statue of the Saint, which still stands over the 
altar in that Chapel. In 1481, he was engaged 

1 Giovanni di Neroccio, apparently another son, signed the 
Painters' Brief in 1533. See Mil. Doc., vol. i., p. 52. 

2 Dal Febbraio 1465 al Maggio 1474. Item: lire 31, sol: o 
Neroccio dipentore per parte d'una sancta Chaterina a fatto 
fare di legniame per stare su 1'altare. Archivio de' Contratti di 
Siena. Revisioni delle Rogioni de' Camarlinghi e Uffiziali del 
Commune, vol. viii., a 413 e seg. 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

to work for the Duke of Calabria, and also for the 
Abbot of the Benedictine Convent at Lucca. In 
1484-85, he received the commission (originally 
given to Vito di Marco and Lucillo, but cancelled 
through the absence of the former, and the death of 
the latter), to execute the tomb of Bishop Tommaso 
del Testa Piccolomini. 1 This tomb is now over the 
door, leading from the Cathedral to the stairs of the 
Campanile. In 1487, he was also directed to make 
the beautiful statue of S. Catherine of Alexandria 
for the Chapel of S. Giovanni in the Duomo ; but 
his death left the work unfinished. We find two 
notices with reference to this work, dated 5th of 
February, 1487-88, and 2ist of August, 1502 2 re- 
spectively: the first recording the payment of an 
advance of 40 lire to the painter himself, and the 
other of a further payment (in accordance with the 
valuation of Giacomo Cozzarelli and Ventura di Ser 
Giuliano) of 202 lire more to his heirs. These heirs, 
as we have seen above, also had a lawsuit over 
another unfinished work of his, with one of his 
pupils, Giovanni Battista di Bartolommeo Alberti. 
Milanesi quotes some interesting documents in con- 
nection with this lawsuit in his notes. 3 The names 
of some of his pupils, besides the above-mentioned 

1 1484-5. Febbraio 4. Archivio detto. Rogiti di Ser 
Giovanni di Danielle. 

2 1487-88. Febbraio 5. Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo. 
Libro Rosso d'un Leone a 242. 

1502. Agosto 21. Archivio e Libro detti, a 242. 

3 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., pp. 38-40. 

132 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

Giovanni Battista di Bartolommeo Alberti are as 
follows : Giovanni di Tedaldo, Leonardo di Ser 
Ambrogio de'- Maestrelli, 1 Taldo di Vittore, and 
Achille di Pietro di Paolo del Crogio. 2 

33. 1483. Guidoccio di Giovanni Cozzarelli. 

This artist must not be confused with the more 
famous Giacomo di Bartolommeo di Marco Cozza- 
relli, who was a sculptor and worker in metal, nor 
do we know, whether or no, he was related in any 
way to the engineer Giovanni Cozzarelli, a notice 
of whose work on a bridge at Macereto, we find 
under date 3rd of November, ^Sy. 3 This man was 
a painter of considerable ability, whose pictures 
may be studied in the Picture Gallery, and who 
executed some of the miniatures in the Duomo 
Antiphonaries. We read that in 1447, he was 
employed with Sano di Pietro, to decorate the 
Chapel (now destroyed) of the Madonna delle 
Grazie in the Cathedral ; and that in 1481, he was 
employed on the decoration of the interior of the 
Cupola. Professor Luigi Mussini 4 suggests that 
the Tavoletta di Biccherna (No. 34 of those pre- 
served in the Archivio di Stato), representing The 

1 Of noble origin, a painter, and a writer of Comedies and 
Pastoral Eclogues. He also had charge of the candles for the 
service of the Duomo, and belonged to the Accademia dei 
Rozzi, where he received the nickname of Mescolino. 

2 Mil. Doc., vol. in., pp. 40-42. 

3 Ibid., vol. ii., p. 418. 

4 Le Tavole della Biccherna, e della Gabella della Repubblica 
di Siena, by Luigi Mussini, p. n. (Siena, Bargellini, 1877.) 

33 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple, is by 
him. 

34. 1484. Bernardino d' Antonio. 

35. 1484. Cristofano di Pietro Paolo del 

Quarantotto. 

Of these men nothing is known but the refer- 
ence to them here. 

36. 1 505-6. Bernardino di Benedetto or Betto 
(II Pinturicchio]. 

Of this painter, and his work, so much has been 
written elsewhere, that I shall only attempt the 
briefest sketch of his life here. 

He was a native of Perugia, was the son of a 
certain Betto or Benedetto, and was born in 1454. 
He had six children by his wife Grania : Aclriana, 
who married Giuseppe, son of Giovanni of Perugia, 
and died in 1518 : Clelia or Egidia, who married 
Girolamo, son of Paolo of Perugia, called Paffa, a 
soldier of the guard of Siena ; Giulio Cesare (b. 
1506); Camillo (b. 1509); Faustina Girolama (b. 
1510) ; and Faustina, who married Filippo, son of 
Paolo of Perugia, or of Deruta. His frescoes in 
the Libreria of the Duomo, and the chapel of S. 
Giovanni, are among the most celebrated of Italian 
works of art. Vasari relates many more or less 
fictitious stories about his life and doings, which, 
though amusing to read, are not borne out by fact. 
He died in 1513, and was buried in the Church of 
SS. Vincenzo and Anastasia, the Chapel of the 
Contrada of the Porcupine (Is trice). 

134 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

37. 1505-6. Paolo Mannucci. 

Of this artist, nothing is known, but the notice 
already quoted, which states that he was employed 
to execute Pinturicchio's design of the Allegory 
of Fortune. (No. 36.) 

38. 1518. Domenico di Jacopo di Pace Becca- 
fumi, called Mecarino (or Mecherind). 

This very celebrated painter and sculptor was 
the son of a certain Giacomo (Jacopo) di Pace, 1 a 
labourer on the Podere of Cortine, near the Castle 
of Montaperto, and was born in 1486. This Podere 
was the property of the Sienese noble, Lorenzo 
Beccafumi, who, more than once held high offices 
in his native town. The boy early showed re- 
markable artistic promise, and used to amuse him- 
self modelling animals, flowers, and leaves in clay. 
Lorenzo Beccafumi, one day seeing these efforts, 
and being struck by their promise, took him into his 
house, as a sort of servitor, but also gave him the 
opportunity of studying art. Near the house of 
the Beccafumi family, was then living an artist, 
named Mecarino, of poor ability and circum- 
stances, but possessing a fine collection of drawings 
by good masters. These the young Domenico 
studied carefully, and on the death of Mecarino, 
by that artist's special wish, assumed his name. 
In later years, he also added, by permission of his 

1 Said to have been so called on account of his peaceful 
disposition. 

135 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

first patron, the name of Beccafumi. He was 
married twice. By his first wife, Andreoccia, of 
whose family and origin nothing is known, he had 
a son, Adriano, who died poor and childless in 
1588. By his second wife, Caterina, sister of 
Pietro Cataneo, the Sienese architect and mathe- 
matician, he had two daughters : Ersilia (b. 1535), 
and Polifila (b. 1573), who became afterwards a 
Gesuate nun, under the name of Suor Cecilia. 
His work was very much sought after, and is to be 
found in all directions, in churches and palaces alike, 
throughout Siena. (111. XXV.) At one time, he 
came very much under the influence of Giovanni 
Antonio Bazzi (called // Sodoma], in whose com- 
pany he worked, from 1518 to 1532, at the decor- 
ation of the Oratorio di S. Bernardino, 1 but sub- 
sequently, became his rival and bitter enemy. 
One of his earliest works in Siena was, in 1513, 
the decoration in fresco of the facade of the 
Palazzo de' Borghesi in the Piazza, di Postierla, 
opposite the house of Agostino Bardi, soon after- 
wards adorned in similar materials by Sodoma. 2 In 
February, 1515, he purchased a house, numbered 
408, in the Via dei Maestri (now Via Tito Sarocchi), 
for which he paid 270 florins, and, in 1545, another 
house next door for 245 florins. 3 We find him 
continually in request to value works of art of all 
kinds : panel-pictures, frescoes, bronze crucifixes, 

1 Nuovi Docnmenti, p. 422-423. 

2 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., p. 66. 

3 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., p. 70-71. 

136 







I.OMBARDI PHOTO.] 



[LILY DESIGNED BY ANTONIO FEDERIGHI (?) 
A. DESIGNED BY DOMENICO BECCAFUMI 



XXIV. DRAWINGS OF DETAILS 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

marble tombs, etc., and Guilds were always em- 
ploying him to paint bier-heads and banners for 
them. Among the latter, we are told that he was 
engaged by the Compagnia di S. Sebastiano in 
Camollia, to complete Sodoma's celebrated banner 
of S. Sebastian (now in the Uffizi Gallery in 
Florence). 1 In 1529, and again in 1535, he re- 
ceived commissions to decorate the Sala del Con- 
cistoro in the Palazzo Pubblico ; and on the occa- 
sion of the visit of Charles V. to Siena (23rd of 
April, 1536), he, in company with Anton Maria di 
Paolo Lari (nicknamed" // Tozzd] and Lorenzo 
Donati, designed and erected a triumphal arch 
and other decorations, including a gigantic horse 
in papier-mache, in honour of that Emperor. 2 He 
was also famous as a worker in bronze, 3 and among 
the works done by him in this metal, the most 
celebrated, now known, are six of the bronze angels, 
holding lights, affixed to the columns in the Choir 
of the Duomo. For this work he received 11,600 
lire from the Opera del Duomo. According to a 
contemporary Register of persons buried in the 
Duomo, Beccafumi died on the i8th May, 1550, 
and was buried there : other authorities state that 

1 Romagnuoli MS. Life of Gio. A. Bazzi (II Sodoma), Biblio- 
teca Pubblica di Siena. The writer claims to have seen docu- 
ments proving this among the Archives of the Patrimonio 
Ecclesiastico, but I find no mention of it elsewhere. 

2 For these works he received 70 scudi in gold. Milanesi, 
Notes on Vasari's Vite, etc., vol. v., p. 645. 

3 Letter from Accursio Baldi to Scipione Cibo. Biblioteca 
Pubblica di Siena. Cod. D. vii. 4. 

138 




S ""> 

s 

2 o 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

his death occurred in the following year. 1 Giorgio 
di Gio. Simone was one of his pupils, and Giovanni 
Battista di Girolamo Sozzini (of whom presently) 
was another. 

39. 1518. Bernardino di facomo. 

Of this sculptor nothing much is known. In 
company with a painter named Francesco di 
Bartolommeo, in 1555, he valued a picture painted 
by Lorenzo di Cristofano (il Rustico] and his 
pupils, for the Confraternita di S. Michele ; and 
he was in 1559-60, commissioned to make three 
coats of arms in tufa, to decorate the faade of the 
Palazzo Pubblico. 

40. 1518. Giovannantonio Marinelli, called 
il Mugnaino. 

Of this sculptor we find no trace ; but we read 
of another workman in the same craft, by name 
Anton Maria, who was also nicknamed il 
Mugnaino. This artist in 1583, with another 
sculptor, Domenico Capo, was employed to make 
marble ornaments for an altar in the Duomo. 2 

41. 1518. Giacomo di Pietro Gallo. 

42. 1518. Bartolommeo di Pietro Gallo. 
Of these two brother masons nothing is known. 

They may have been related to the cannon-founder, 

1 Album della Storia Patria. Bozzetti Refiubblicani Senesi, 
vol. i., p. 637. 

2 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., p. 252. 

140 



THE PAVEMENT MASTERS 

Mose Gallo, whom we find referred to in 1502, as 
making guns for the Commune of Siena ; l or they 
may have been related to the family from which 
came Sodoma's wife, Beatrice, daughter of Luca 
di Gallo. 

43. 1518. Niccolo Filippi. 

44. 1518. Cristofano di Car bone. 

45. 1544. Pellegrino di Pietro. 

The only information to be found, concerning 
this sculptor, is that he was employed to make a 
tomb for the Marsili family, which was valued by 
Francesco Tolomei and Domenico Beccafumi. 2 

46. 1562. Giovanni Battista di Girolamo Sozzini. 

This painter and sculptor was born in Siena in 
1 52 5, and studied the arts of drawing and painting 
under Bartolommeo Neroni (// Riccio). He was 
also a pupil of Beccafumi's, and in addition learned 
to make portrait-effigies in stucco and wax under 
Pastorino Pastorini, in which art he excelled. 3 He 
was brother to the celebrated Alessandro Sozzini, 
Diarist of the last Siege of Siena, and died in 1582. 
His work, as we have said above, was much 
admired in its day. 

1 Nuovi Documenti, p. 363. 

2 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., p. 317. 

3 Signer Armand (Les Medailleurs Italiens des quinzieme et 
seizieme Sticks. Paris. Plon, 1879. i n ' 8 )> attributes to him 
the medallion of Cammillo Agrippa, Milanese architect and 
engineer, who lived during the Pontificate of Pope Gregory XIII. 
Milanesi, Notes on Vasari's Vite^ etc., vol. v., p. 391. 

141 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

47. 1562. Niccolo di Girolamo Gori, 
With his brother Antonio was, in 1552, party to 
a receipt in full, given by the Opera del Duomo 
to Pastorino Pastorini, the painter and worker in 
glass, for work done there. 1 

48. 1562. Domenico di Pier Giovanni. 

Of this man also no record is to be found, but 
perhaps he was the son of the mason. Pier Gio- 
vanni, mentioned in a document dated 1537, who 
opened up an arch for a niche in connection -with 
Sodoma's work on the Cappella di Piazza. 2 

From this time, for over 200 years, the Pave- 
ment work stood still, until : 

49. 1780. Carlo Amidei, a craftsman of a 
very mediocre type. 

50. 1780. Matteo Pini, who was probably 
only a mason. 

Then another century passed away, until our 
own day. 

51. 1875. Professor A lessandro Franchi. 

52. 1875. Professor L eopoldo Maccari. 

53. 1875. Antonio Radicchi. 

54. 1875. Giuseppe Radicchi. 

These names belong to the History of Modern 
Italian Art, so that I need do no more than men- 
tion them in passing, as they hardly come into the 
scope of this work. 

1 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., p. 192. * Ibid., vol. iii., p. 185. 

142 



CHAPTER IV 

OTHER PAVEMENT WORK 

AS far as I have been able to ascertain, there 
are but three other examples of Pavement 
work, similar to that employed in the Siena Duomo. 
Mosaic pavements, of course, abound all over Italy, 
with more or less elaborate designs, fanciful, his- 
torical, or symbolical ; x but none of them really re- 
sembles this kind of work, which seems to have 
been peculiar to the artistic mind of the Sienese. 
The only other works, that I can find, that can, in 
any degree, be allied to it are : 

T. The Cathedral Pavement at Lucca. 

2. The Pavement of the Piccolomini Chapel at 

S. Francesco, in Siena. 

3. The Pavement of the Chapel of Sta. Caterina 

in S. Domenico, in the same town. 
Let us take them in order of date. 

i . The Cathedral Pavement at Lucca. 
This floor is covered with geometrical patterns 

1 In the Cathedral of the SS. Annunziata at Otranto, there is 
a celebrated work of this kind, dating from 1 163, with a number 
of mythical and historical figures, Signs of the Zodiac, etc., 
upon it. 

143 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

in inlay, and was executed during the Rectorship 
of Jacopo di Chivizzano (1470-1484). We know, 
from several references in the Archives of the 
" Opera " of that Cathedral, that it had been com- 
menced before H75, 1 and that, among others, 
Matteo Civitali, the great Lucchese sculptor, was 
employed upon some of the designs on it. It 
principally consists of merely ornamental friezes 
and geometrical designs. In the centre of the 
Nave, however, there is one picture, to which I 
would draw special attention. It represents the 
Judgment of Solomon, and is the work of one 
Antonio di Ghino of Siena. It was commissioned, 
we read, 2 by a certain Bartolommeo Guarguaglia, 
and finished in I477- 3 The work is of the same kind 
as that at Siena, but is coarser and heavier in type. 
In design it most resembles the work of Domenico 
di Bartolo, but there are suggestions in some of 
the female figures of the influence, Botticellesque 
perhaps, that produced Matteo di Giovanni's 
Judith and her maid, in the Relief of Bethulia. 
Solomon sits on a throne, under a sort of pillared 
loggia, surrounded by courtiers and attendants, 
while before him stand the claimants and their 
infants. The colouring of the picture, the somewhat 

1 Vacchetta vecchia di entrate et uscite dal 1471 all 1484. 
Archivio dell' Opera di Sta. Croce. (Miscellaneo MS. di n. 1 549, 
p. 1 68, e seg. nella Biblioteca Pubbl. di Lucca.) 

E. Ridolfi. L'Arte in Lucca, studiata nella sita Catte- 
drale. (Lucca, 1882), p. 163, 164. 

3 The final payment is dated gth June, 1477. 
144 



OTHER PAVEMENT WORK 

brutal force of the composition, and the plentiful use 
of vari-coloured marbles, recall Matteo di Giovanni's 
Massacre of the Innocents, although that work was 
not executed until several years later. Being in 
the centre of the nave, and not covered, it has 
been much injured by time and hard usage. Of 
its maker, Antonio di Ghino, we know but little. 
From a note given by Milanesi, 1 we gather that, 
though here called " da Siena" he really came of 
Lucchese stock, and was the son of one Ghino di 
Paolo of Lucca, a sculptor who lived long in Siena, 
and died in 1482. Antonio apparently had a son, 
who signed the Painters' Brief in 1533. 

2. The Pavement of the Cappella Piccolo minea in 
S. Francesco. 

This chapel, which was originally dedicated to 
S. Andrew, has recently been entirely rejuvenated, 
at the expense of the late Signora Anna Camaiori 
Saracini, and re-dedicated to Sta. Anna. There is 
not, therefore, at first sight much trace of the 
original work left. We know that, in 1 5O4, 2 Lorenzo 

1 Mil. Doc., vol. i., p. 53. The compiler in this note pro- 
mfses to give more particulars about him further on, but does 
not do so ; and I can find nothing more elsewhere. 

~ Archivio de' Contratti. Rogiti di Ser Filiziano Nerini. 
According to Padre de Angelis ( Vita del Beato Pietro Pettinaio, 
p. 124) the artist received 900 florins, of four lire each, for the 
pavement and altar decorations ; and his designs on two sheets 
of paper, one green and the other plain, signed with his name 
and the date 1504, are to be found in vol. 69, in the Archives 
of the Piccolomini family. 

H5 L 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

di Mariano (IlMarrina) was employed by Giacomo 
Piccolomini, brother of Pope Pius III., to adorn 
their family chapel in this church ; and, that he not 
only made an altar, the decorations around the 
windows, and the entrance arch to the chapel, but 
also laid down " four Cardinal Virtues : J^tst^ce, 
Prudence, Fortitude, and Temperance, on the floor. 1 
Of all this work, the various conflagrations, that have 
destroyed the great church of S. Francesco, have 
left only the arch, the coats of arms, the windows, 
a small portion of the altar, and the pavement. 
Restoration, of a too complete kind, has even further 
concealed the original nature of what remained ; 
and one's first impression on looking at this pave- 
ment is that it is brand-new, so well has Professor 
Leopoldo Maccari done his work. 2 The figures, 
however, on close inspection, show high merit. 
They are finely conceived, on the lines of the 
Sibyls in the Duomo, and are imposing pieces of 
work. Lorenzo di Mariano (// Marrina] was one 
of the finest sculptors of his time. He was born on 
the iith of August, 1476, and was the son of 
Mariano di Domenico Nanni, a goldsmith. In 
1506, he became Capo-maestro of the Opera del 
Duomo, 3 where he had been employed since 1490, 

1 According to Padre Micheli (La Guida Artistica, p. 131) 
these Virtues were executed from designs by Pacchiarotto, hut 
I find no authority for that assertion, which seems to contradict 
the statement made by Padre de Angelis above. 

~ V. Lusini. Storia della Basilica di S. Francesco a Siena, 
pp. 143, and 282. 

3 Mil. Doc., vol. iii., p. 77. 

146 



OTHER PAVEMENT WORK 

under the mastership of Giovanni di Maestro 
Stefano. On the 28th of January, in the following 
year, he married Elisabetta, daughter of Ser Jacopo 
Bertini, by whom he had four sons : by name, 
Girolamo, Gio.-Battista, Agostino, and Giacomo, 
who were goldsmiths ; and one daughter, Barto- 
lommea, who married Lattanzio di Gio. Lotti. He 
worked a great deal for the various members of 
the Piccolomini family ; the finest extant piece 
commissioned by them remaining, being the door- 
way of the Libreria in the Duomo. A tabernacle 
in the chapel of the Convent of S. Girolamo, and, 
above all, the exquisite altar in the church of the 
Fontegiusta by him, testify that the admiration, in 
which he was held, in his day, was not misplaced. 

3. The Pavement of the Chapel of Sta. Caterina 
in S. Domenico. 

Of this work we have no reliable record ; but it 
is clearly of late date, perhaps made in the six- 
teenth century, and most probably, as a sepulchral 
memorial. We learn from Abate Faluschi, 1 that 
this chapel belonged to the Benzi family, and was 
their burial-place. Hither was brought the body 
of the famous Marco, son of Giovanni Benzi and 
Nicola Serfucci, who was physician to Niccolo, 
Marchese d'Este, and died in Ferrara in 1429. 
The corpse was buried by his uncle Ugo, son of 

1 Faluschi MSS. Chiese Senesi, A-F, pp. 154 (on the back) 
and 148 (on the back). 

147 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

Andrea Benzi and Minoccia Pagni, in 1448 ; and 
the chapel was built over the grave by Niccolo 
Buonsignore Benzi in 1488. The following inscrip- 
tion, now effaced : 

HIC LAPIS EGREGII MARCI TEGIT OSSA CELEBRIS. 

BENZIUS IS LOGICUS, IS MEDICUS-QUE FUIT. 
ALTER ERAT SOCRATES MEDICINA MAXIMUS ARTIS. 

HIC AVICENNA FUIT, ISQUE GALENUS ERAT. 
QUOS IS NON POTUIT CURASSE EGROS 

HERBIS NE CREDAS ID VALUISSE DEOS. 

was placed to the memory of Marco Benzi. We 
find too, that another physician, Sozzini Benzi, 
belonging to the same family, was also buried 
here. The decoration of this chapel, by Sodoma, 
did not take place until 1526; and it is not im- 
probable, that the floor was subsequent to that 
date. So that it may have been the work of the 
last of the Pavement Masters, Giovanni Battista 
Sozzini, spoken of above. The Sozzinis were a 
distinguished family, and if the name tells us any- 
thing, may have been related to this very Sozzini 
Benzi. The figure of yEsculapius, seated among 
various wild beasts, would then have appropriate 
reference to the merits of these two physicians. 
It is strange to find such a classical piece of com- 
position in a chapel dedicated to Sta. Caterina di 
Siena, a saint so pre-eminently ecclesiastical ; but 
it is quite in accordance with the spirit of the 
time, y^sculapius, a handsome nude youth, re- 
sembling Orpheus or Bacchus, is seated on a rock 

148 



OTHER PAVEMENT WORK 

in a grove of oaks, laurels, and fruit-trees. In his 
right hand he holds a mirror in which is reflected 
his own face. To his right, are an unicorn and a 
wolf: to his left, a leopard and a lion. Perched 
on the trees, in various directions, are sundry 
birds :' owls, vultures, eagles, etc. One vulture, 
on the right of the principal figure, is screaming 
at a monkey, who is eating fruit. On the other 
side, another bird is clawing at an over-grown 
squirrel. Around the composition is a frieze re- 
presenting water, on which are swimming swans 
and ducks. 1 The composition is good, but the 
perspective is odd, and the use of many coloured 
marbles profuse, and not altogether happy. 

1 This border of waterfowl may possibly allude to the Con- 
trada of the Oca (the Goose) of which Contrada Sta. Caterina 
was the especial Patroness, she having lived in their ward and 
their chapel being in her former home. 

NOTE. The tomb of the Cennini family, before the High 
Altar in S. Francesco is a degraded seventeenth-century speci- 
men of this kind of work, but it is so debased in taste, and so 
injured by time, that I hardly like drawing attention to it. 



149 



CHAPTER V 

MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP OF THE PAVEMENT 

MOST of the writers on the Pavement, speak 
of its workmanship, as being of four kinds. 
This would give the idea of four distinct methods, 
abruptly divided, which is most certainly not the 
case. The line of division is so indistinct, and 
the various styles so blended one into the other, 
that I can only describe it as an evolution, during 
which four special changes took place. 

The earliest and simplest method consisted in 
using large pieces of white marble, shaped and 
put together (" commesso ") to form a sort of sil- 
houette : the perspectives, folds of robes, and other 
details being defined by lines made, first, with a 
graving tool, and then accentuated by rows of 
holes, (smaller or larger, according to the import- 
ance of the particular line in the general composi- 
tion), pierced with a trepanning drill. This is 
said to be a trapano, and is in fact the real 
graffito work. These punctures were frequently 
very deep, and when filled up with a stucco, com- 
posed of pitch (pecie navale), resin (ragia), and 

150 



MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP 

pounded potter's clay (bo Ho macinato), produced 
a surface hard, and nearly as durable, as the solid 
marble itself. In order further to heighten the 
effect, the pieces of white marble, making up the 
entire scene or figure, were inlaid against a piece 
of dark marble : generally black for the atmo- 
sphere, and red for the ground, upon which the 
figures were supposed to stand. In the ornamental 
friezes, framing these scenes and figures, marble of 
other colours very early began to be used. Then 
presently, these coloured marbles found their way 
into the picture itself; especially in the larger 
scenes, where yellow, for instance, was found use- 
ful to accentuate jewellery or ornaments. Take 
as an example, The Massacre of the Innocents 
(Matteo di Giovanni), in which it is very largely 
employed. To this end also, black marble is twice 
introduced with startling effect : for The Libyan 
Sibyl (Guidoccio Cozzarelli), and for the negro 
boy in The Story of Jephthah (Bastiano di Fran- 
cesco). It is undoubtedly true, that the finest 
effects are obtained, where there is least variety 
in colour, and where the artist has depended most 
entirely on simple line, and contrasts of white 
marble against black. A fine specimen of this 
treatment is The Story of Absalom (Pietro del 
Minella). Here the figures, trees, etc., stand 
out with almost weird abruptness, as if they had 
been cut out of white paper. It must be borne in 
mind, however, (in spite of statements made to the 
contrary, and the fact that such methods were 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

employed elsewhere later on), 1 that the marbles 
used on the Pavement were always natural, and 
not artificially coloured. The Duomo authorities 
appear to have had quarries, either of their own, 
or under contract to supply them regularly. We 
read of nostro marmiera 2 at Gallena, in the Val 
d'Elsa ; of black marble, brought from chasciano 
de le donne (^>2L\\ Casciano, near Radicofani) ; 3 and 
of red from Gerfalco in the Val di Cecina, near 
Massa Marittima. 4 

Pinturicchio, following out his ardent. taste for 
brilliant and bizarre effect, made plentiful use of 
these colour varieties ; but what probably makes the 
work of Beccafumi so striking, as compared with 
that of his predecessors, is, that in his later work 
he discards these vivid contrasts, confines himself 
almost entirely to low tones of colour, which shade 
from one into the other ; and produces his effects 
by a species of chiaroscuro. Instead of outlining 
each piece, or figure, in a single colour, he fre- 
quently uses on the same subject, white and two 
or three different shades of pale-coloured grey 
marble. On a face, or a nude figure, this gives 

1 An instance of this debased, but by some admired, artifice 
may be seen in the church of S. Giorgio in Siena, on the 
memorial slab to the artist, Francesco Vanni, executed in 1656, 
by his son, Michel Angelo. 

2 1476, 9 Settembre. Archivio dell' Opera del Duomo. 
Libro Giallo delle tre Rose a 57. 

3 1485 Archivio detto. Libro Nero dal 1461-1533 a 182. 

4 1482. Archivio detto. Libro d'un Leone a 34 (on the 
back). 

152 



MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP 

the effect of shadows of varying intensity, but, at 
times, runs perilously near the ludicrous, by making 
some of the persons parti-coloured. In the Elijah 
series, his earliest work, probably with an idea 
of improving on his predecessors, he had intro- 
duced small pieces of vivid green and red marble, 
to indicate jewelled borders to the robes of Ahab, 
and other important personages. This treatment, 
adopted again by Professor Franchi, when com- 
pleting that Story, he soon wholly discarded, still 
retaining, however, the old graffito method for his 
outlines. But this also he abandoned more and 
more as he proceeded. Had he not been so fine 
a draughtsman his experiments in this direction 
would have been dangerous. Even now, it is 
doubtful, whether the results are so practically 
durable, or so artistically satisfactory, on the floor, 
as the older work. It would seem, as if they, in 
a sense, the apotheosis of this species of work, 
should be set up perpendicularly, so that the full 
effect of their superb draughtsmanship could be 
fairly perceived and appreciated. 

Professor Franchi must have found himself in 
a great dilemma, when he undertook to complete 
this work. He could hardly revert to the manner 
of the pre-Beccafumi schools, and it would have 
been too dangerous to imitate closely Beccafumi 
himself. Fortunately, he had special gifts, and 
had the courage to follow his own instinct. The 
result has been, works, which, if in vivid con- 
trast to all that had gone before, and essentially 

153 



PAVEMENT OF SIENA 

modern in feeling, are works of art of unquestion- 
able brilliance. They resemble cartoons in marble, 




LOMBARDI 1'HOTO.] [BY PROF. ALESSANDRO FRANCHI 

(FROM A DRAWING) 

XXVI. ELIJAH CAUGHT UP TO HEAVEN (No. 38) 

and are drawn with extraordinarily realistic force. 
All the three larger designs are instinct with life, 

154 



MATERIALS AND WORKMANSHIP 

and irresistibly suggestive of energetic movement. 
We may especially notice for this Elijah being 
caught up to Heaven. (111. XXVI.) 

In conclusion, let me say, that whatever may 
be the opinion of critics of undoubted ability : first, 
as to the suitability of a Pavement, such as this, 
at all ; * and next, as to the varying merits of this 
or that portion of it, over any other: there can be 
no doubt, as to its paramount and unique interest, 
historically, as well as artistically. It is in itself a 
small epitome of Sienese Art History: a continuous 
chain, whose links bind together, in spite of long 
intervals, more than five centuries of Sienese art- 
workers ; and a never-ending joy to the thoughtful 
and the intelligent. 

1 See Charles E. Norton. Church Building in the Middle 
Ages, p. 176. 



155 



INDEX 



Abraham's Sacrifice, 88. 
Absalom, the Story of, 10, 77, 

79, 80, 151. 
Adamo, Marchesse d', 7, 74, 

1 08. 
Agostino, Guasparred', 12, 19, 

117. 



Bastiano, Corso di, 12, 19, 20, 

1 17. 
Bazzi, Giovanni Antonio (So- 

doma), 90. 
Beccafumi, Domenico (Meca- 

rino), u, 12, 89 et seq., 104, 

135, et seq., 152. 



Alexander III. (Bandinelli), Benzi Family, the, 147, 148. 



Pope, 19. 
Alexander VII. (Chigi), Pope, 

83- 

Amidei, Carlo, 12, 63, 67, 87, 
98, 142. 



Bethulia, Relief of, 63 et seq. 
Betti, Bernardino (Pinturic- 

chio), 10, n, 23, 25, 27, 28, 

104, 134, 152. 
Biagio, Benedetto di, 100. 



Antonio, Bernardino d', 56, j Biagio, Giuliano di, 35, 44, 125. 

Borghesi, Giovanni di Pietro 

Ghezzi, 16, 71, 81. 
Brunaccio, Antonio di, 104. 



I34-. 
Antonio, Francesco di Ser, 

105. 

Antonio, Giacomo d', 78, 114. 
Aringhieri, Alberto, 10, 23, 25, 

3 J > 53- 

Badges of Siena and the Con- 
federate Cities, 23, 24. 

Bambagini Galletti, Pietro, 
102. 

Bartoli, Matteo di Giovanni, 
7i IX > 45> 46, 59, 60, 61, 
62, 64, 65, 122, 144, 151. 

Bartolo, Matteo di, 105. 

Bartolommeo, Francesco di, 



65, 125, 140. 



Carbone, Cristofano di, 93, 

141. 
Cecchi, Bartolommeo, 69, 78, 

80, 91. 

Cecco, Luca di, 7, 107. 
Children of Israel seeking the 

Promised Land, 89. 
Chivizzano, Jacopo di, 144. 
Civitali, Matteo, 144. 
Consecration of the Duomo, the, 

19. 

Corsino, Nanni di, 7, 105. 
Corso, Bastiano di, 20, 72, 1 10. 



157 



INDEX 



Cozzarelli, Giacomo, ijn, 124, 

133. 
Cozzarelli, Guidoccio, 52, 127, 



i33> 



Ghezzi, Domenico di Bartolo 

di, 9, 78, 112, 113. 
Ghino, Antonio di, 144, 145. 



Giacomo, Bernardino di, 90, 

93, 96, 140. 

David QI Giovanni, Cecco di, 7, 108. 

David as' King and Psalmist, \ Giovanni, Giovanni di Stefano 

9I< di, 23, 39, 65, 122, 123, 147. 

Domenico, Bartolommeo di, Goliath, 91. 

(Calabrone), 56, 65, 125. Gon, Niccolo di Girolamo, 96, 
Domenico S., Pavement in 142- 

Chapel of Sta. Caterina, 147. Gregono, Maestro, 84 
Ducci 5 8y . Guarguagba, Bartolommeo, 



144. 



Eagle in Wheel, 25. 
Elijah, the Story of, 12, 95, et 
seq., 154. 



Guasparre, Nastagio di, 18, 19, 



, Benvenuto di Giovanni 
del, 44, 53, 54, 55. I2 7> I28 - 



Federighi, Antonio, 10, 18, Hermes Trismegistus, 4, 21, 22. 
41, 42, 64, 65, 84; 85, 86, Herod, the Expulsion of, 53 et 

seq. 



Jfphthah, the Story of, Si, 129, 



100, 118, 124. 

Felice, Cristofano, 100, 122. 
Filippi, Niccolo, 93, 141. 
Fortune, Allegory of,' n, 25 

et Se 1- Joshua, 9,71. 

Fortune, Wheel of, 6, 29 et seq. \ j oshlta > s Victory over the Amor- 

Francesco, Bastiano di, 54, ites, and the Slaughter of the 

58, 82, 12 T, 127, 129, 151. Five Kings, 69. 

Francesco S., Pavement m ; j udas Maccabeus, 9, 75. 

Cappella Piccolominea, 145. 

Franchi, Prof. Alessandro, 12, j Landi) Neroccio di Bartolom- 

87, 102, 142, 153-155. meo> 48j 5I) I24? I26j I3I . 

1 Lucca, Cathedral pavement at, 
Gallo, Bartolommeo di Pietro, i 143. 

93, 140. 

Gallo, Giacomo di Pietro, 93, Maccari, Leopoldo, 13, 25, 29, 

140. 86, 87, 102, 142, 146. 

158 



INDEX 



Mannucci, Paolo, 28, 135. 
Marco, Sano di, 105. 
Marco, Vito di, 35, 37, 42, 48, 



Pietro, Urbano di, 42, 64, 65, 

119, 120, 124, 128. 
Pini, Matteo ; 63, 67, 87, 98, 



56, 118, 124, 126, 132. 142. 

Mariano (Mandriano), Barto- Porta del Perdono, the, 12, 



ommeo di, 18, 117. 
Mariano, Lorenzo di(Marrina), 

i 2 5> J 45 J 46. 

Mariano, Pellegrino di, 127. 
Marinelli, Giovannantonio 

(Mugnaino), 93, 140. 
Martino, Paolo di, 8, 9, 69, 70, 

71, 75, no, in. 
Massacre of the Innocents, the, 

11, 59 et seq, 73, 151. 
Matteo, Sano di, 7, 106. 
Minella, Pietro del, 10, 79, 81, 

114, 151. 

Minuccio, Andrea di, 7, 29. 
Moses, 9, 75. 

Moses, the Story of , 12, 92, 139. 
Moses striking the Rock, 94. 

Niccolo, Agostino di, 72, 73, 
92, 109. 

Niccolo, Domenico di (del 
Coro), 8, 9, 31, 69, 70, 71, 
76, 91, 101, 108, 112. 

Peruzzi, Baldassare, 1 1, 87, 93. 
Pharisee and the Publican, the, 

16, 17. 
Pier Giovanni, Domenico di, 

96, 142. 
Pietro, Lorenzo di(Vecchietta), 

119, 131. 

Pietro, Pellegrino di, 90, 141. 
Pietro, Sano di, 128, 131, 133. 



19, 76, 83. 

Quarantotto, Cristofano di 
Pietro Paolo del, 56, 136. 

Quercia, Giacomo della, 10, 
78, 114. 

Radicchi, Antonio, 142. 
Radicchi, Ferdinando, 102. 
Radicchi, Giuseppe, 86, 142. 
Ruggiero, Luigi di(Armellino), 
36, 42, 48, 124, 126. 

Samson slaying the Philistines, 

7p, 7 1 * 75. "I-. 
Savino, Savino di Matteo di 
Guido, 65. 

Seven Ages of Man, the, 84. 
Sibyls,, the, 31, et seq. 
Sigismund, the Emperor, 77, 

ii3- 

Solomon, 71. 

Sozzini, Giovanni Battista, 96, 

141, 148. 
Spannocchi, Tiburzio, 97. 

Tolomei, Francesco di Carlo, 
93- 

Vescovo, Antonio d'Agostino 

del, 93. 

Virtues, the Cardinal, 73. 
Virtues, the Theological, 87. 



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